Exploration and climbing history in the Himalaya and the Karakoams PakistanExploration and climbing history in the Himalaya and the Karakoams Pakistan Exploration and climbing history in the Himalaya the Karakoams before Pakistan!!
The following is the chronology of the import explorations carried out during the course Of history so far,
In 390 A.D
Famous Chinese traveler and Scholar Fahein crossed the Karakoroms through the Mintika Pass 15450 feet on his way from Sinkiang to the Sub-continent. Rahein mentioned some of the salient features about the Karakoroms.
In 603-4 A .D. another Chinese Traveler Hinen Tsang trekked his way through the Kakarkorms to the sub-continent.
In 13th Century:
Marco Polo rested near the Karakoroms during the journey into Central Asia and Takla Maken desert. He mentioned about this range.
Jppolito Desideri of Italy was lad the first European to enter karakoroms via Zoji La Pass in Kashmir.
In 1812 Moorcroft and Hearsay Karakoroms Pass on their way to Yarknd, Mir Izzat ullah first Muslims also crossed karakoroms on way to Turketan,
1820-25 Moorcroft and Trebeck crossed Karakoroms on way to upper Shyok.
1830 Alexander Gardner from the service of Maharaja Ranjit Singh crossed Kadpo Ngonpo La close to Karakoroms pass on a journey from Yarkand to Kashmir.
1834-35 J Henderson crossed Karakoroms La.
1838 G. T Vigne made extensive journeys and reached the snout of Ghogo Lungma glacier in the karakoroms.
1850, Richard Strachery explored the Siachen glacier-biggest outside the polar region.
1850, Schlagintweit brothers crossed Karakoroms and later reached Baltoro glacier.
1858, the height of K-2 was determined as 28,250 feet by Montgomery.
1861, Godwin Austen crossed Skora La and entered Braldu valley and explored and mapped the great glacier region comprising the Baltoro, Chogo Lungma, Biafo, Panmah, Austen was the first to traverse most of these glaciers to discover the approaches to K-2 and to sketch its topography.
1862-83, Captain Henry Haversham Godwin-Austen Survey of India went to Baltistan area and surveyed the famous valleys Saltoro and Shigar. He continued his exploration in the Karakoroms.
1887 Sir Francis Young-husband entered the Karakoroms via Muztagh pass 18000 feet, He was also the first man to set eyes on the Northern flanks of K-2.
In 1889, Sir Francis Young-husband again visited the Karakoroms to explore main passes in the karakoroms, Discovered Gasherbrum and Urdok glaciers.
1892: Brig General George Cockerill mapped the western karakoroms.
1892 Martin Conway led the first major expedition to explore and climb Himalayan and Karakoroms peaks. He used crampons for the first time and surveyed four big glaciers Hispar, Biafo, Kerolongma and Baltoro, Conquered Crystal peak 19,400 feet and also attempted Pioneer peak 22,600.
Dr. and Mrs. Workman Bulluck reached the Pyramid Peak at the Cohogluungom glacier; this couple visited Karakoroms seven times in 1892.
1907: Dr. Longstaff crossed Saltoro pass to the Siachen glacier.
In 1909: Longstaff and his party crossed Chulung pass near the K-12 in Siachen glacier.
1909: Duke of Abruzzi reconnoitered K-2 photographed all approached to K-2, except from the north, mapped the whole region on large scale including the Broad peak, Gasherbrum, and Chogolisa groups. All reached 24,000 feet on Chogolisa peak.
Dr. and Mrs. Workman again visited and explored the whole of Siachen glacier and reached height of 20,000 feet on Slatoro Kangri.
Filippo-de Folipi led scientific expedition into the area east of Siachen glacier, carried out important Geographical exploration.
In 1925: Dr. Ph .C. Viser, led first pert after the war to the karakorom did some important job in surveying the main tributaries oh Hunza River. Viser was accompanied by Sahib Afraz Gul Khan who had earlier worked in the Central Asia and was considered as an accomplished surveyor and possessed extraordinary sense of Topography. He was perhaps the first Muslim to be associated with the exploration of the Karakoroms.
Mr. Kenneth Mason led a for-man part, including Sahib Khan Gul Afruz, did some exploration on Shaksgam valley in 1926.
In 1927 M. F Mountaineer and C. J Morris accompanied by Torbaz Khan another Muslim surveyed to whole of the Ghujerab valley.
In 1937 Mr. Harold William Tillman and Eric Earle Shipton, explored and surveyed the north face of the K-2 its subsidiary glacier, the were on a served mission to Shaksgam valley when they also visited the Trango and Sarpa Lggo glacier, and Skamri glacier.
The American Alpine Club expedition to K-2, Robert Bates and Dr. Charles Houston, they reached a height of 26,000 feet in 1938.
The following is the list of the prominent Mountaineering expedition which visited Pakistan.
In 1950, a British expedition to Nanga Parabt, the expedition consisting of the members ended in disaster.
1953, Swiss Scientific expedition to Gligit and Baltistan Consisting of tow Zoologists for the study of Fauna, and same time a American expedition to K-2, the expedition could not go beyond 7900 meter,
In the same year a German Himalayan expedition visit to Nanga Parabt, The team consisting of 10 members made successful assault on the peak under leadership of Dr. Herrligkoeffer, Herman Buhl climbed hi first man to conquered Nanga Parbat.
In 1954, Italian Karakorum expedition to K-2, the expedition consisting of 10 members conquered the world's second highest peak on 31st July, 1954. The leader of the expedition Dr. Ardito Desio also carried out a geological survey of the Baltoro.
In the same year a German- Himalayan expedition to Gasherbrum I, not success,
1954 German Gasherbrum expedition, the attempt was called off.
In 1955 the New Zealand Karakuram expedition to Masherbrum The team called off the attempt after reaching a height 7100 meter.
German Hindukush Scientific expedition to Gilgit and Baltistan in 1955.
Harward Mountaineering Club expedition to explore Gondogoro glacier Basin in 1955.
In the seam year an American expedition apply for permit to climb K-2, although permission was given by the Government of Pakistan but it was later on withdrawn as the peak was already conquered by the Italian.
In 1955 seam times a Frankfurt Himalayan expedition to Chugo Lungma glaciers Karakorum Baltistan, The expedition during its stay for 3 months surveyed the Glacier
And its tributaries, some members of the expedition also conquered The Pyramid peak. The aim of the glacial-meteorological investigation was to evaluate the heat balance of the glacier's surface, the expedition led by Dr. N. Unterstellner of Vienna University.
The Japanese conquered as many as three peaks during the period 1955 to 19963. Interesting enough it seems that the Japanese concentrated their efforts on a particular region. The three peaks thy scaled in the Karakoros are Baltoro Kngri, Saltoro Kangri, and the Chogolisa all of them located in a particular area of the Karakoroms, five were sponsored by Kyoto University. Tow of these expiations worked in the region in collaboration with Punjab University of Lahore Pakistan.
In 1956 a French Mountaineering expedition to hidden peak. The program to climb the peak was subsequently changed and on July 12 the expedition conquered Mustag Tower in Baltoro Glacier.
In the seam year Austrian Himalayan Karakorum expedition to Gasherbrum II, the peak was conquered on 7th July, 1956.
1956 a British expedition to Baltoro, to abject was to reconnoiter and climb Mustagh Tower.
1957 Austrian Karakoram Expedition to Broad Peak, The peak was conquered on 9th June, 1954, Herman Buhl of Nanga Parbat fame died.
In 1957 Dr. P .J Stephenson of the British Karakorom expedition to Slatoro the carried out some scientific investigation in the Basin and traversed from SIACHEN glacier in the Kondus region. According to this expedition the ascent of the Saltoro Kangri was difficult.
In 1957, Lyons Himalaya Committee expedition the expedition visit Baltoro.
The American was first time conquered an a 8000 matters peak in the Karakorom Mountains Pakistan Gasherbrum I, in 4th July 1958,
In 1960 a joint Australian- American-British expedition to K-12 Peak, under the name of SALTORO EXPEDITION, explored the area around K-12, the party mead same useful exploration of Chumik and Gyong glacier,
I am not going to mention all expedition here,
I am Ali Muhammad Mountain Guide from Saltoro Skardu Northern Areas Pakistan; I start as Guide from 1994 in deferent Trekking companies in Pakistan.
In this yang age off my life I heaved seeing nearly all this Pakistani Mountain area and passed.
There are many Trekking and expeditions times visited to Pakistan every years; Thy are come from all around the worlds, to see our beautiful Valleys and mountains of Pakistan, it is truly described by adventure tourist as the world's best kept secret, inviting the world to explore its beauty, grandeurs, rich history, and enjoy the hospitality of its loving people, Pakistan one of the most beautiful countries in worlds, Pakistan lies in the midst of the world's three mightiest mountain ranges, The Himalayas, The Karakorams and the HindKush. This unique blend within this mountainous landscape makes Northern Areas a paradise for mountaineers, climbers, trekkers, anglers and adventure lovers; we say you will com to Pakistan: if any one need more information about Mountaineering Hitory in Pakistan then contact to me.