Why it mattersEverybody is familiar with brass benchmark disks, but fewer people know about the monuments from the earlier surveying era.
Chiseled crosses and triangles on the boulders, stakes, cairns, and steeples of XIXth century gradually gave way to more precise metal bolts starting from 1860s. But the more conspicuous, more familiar disks didn't come into use until mid-1895s in the Eastern part of the US, and until XXth century in the West.
There were several kinds of surveys going on. The GLO (now BLM) was putting together a grid of twonships, ranges, and sections for cadastral purposes. In the isolated mountainous areas, USLMs and USMMs were monumented to record boundaries of mining claims ... essentially a cadastral work too, but without a benefit of a grid. These records remain on paper in the local BLM offices, although a handful of states has started digitizing them. It is kind of cool to find a chiseled cross on a moss-covered rock and to realize that over hundred years ago, it was the reference point for all the prospectors in the area, but you just can't search this stuff on the web.
The CGS (now NGS) meanwhile was conducting long-range precision surveys. In the Western States, two transcontinental survey left a bounty of monumented controls. One survey line went close to Mexico border in Arizona, another generally along the emerging transcontinental railway through UT / NV. With the emphasis on precision, the surveyors tried to triangulate across the continent in as few steps as possible, spanning hundreds of miles from mountaintiop heliothrope (and sometimes selenothrope) stations. (Not to be confused with heliographs which were mostly used in AZ for military communications ... the "graph" part means transmitting texts, while the "thropo" parts means just transmitting direction). The crews just sat there on the mountains waiting for the most transparent atmosphere, usually in early fall, when they could record the numbers the government wanted. Most of the CGS survey records have been digitized and are searcheable through NGS website. Some of these are really very old ... Plymouth Rock for example. In the mountains of Utah, the Transcontinental Survey bolts are among the oldest man-made objects ... very small in size but kind of cool.
Later inthe XXth century, Bureau of Reclamation, USDA, USGS, local DOTs, and a multitude of other services established their own survey controls. Some of these are uploaded into the NGS repository, others are not.
NGS Datasheet for KO0484
KO0484 *********************************************************************** KO0484 DESIGNATION - IBEPAH KO0484 PID - KO0484 KO0484 STATE/COUNTY- UT/JUAB KO0484 USGS QUAD - IBAPAH PEAK (1975) KO0484 KO0484 *CURRENT SURVEY CONTROL KO0484 ___________________________________________________________________ KO0484* NAD 83(1994)- 39 49 41.37678(N) 113 55 11.12007(W) ADJUSTED KO0484* NAVD 88 - 3685.8 (meters) 12092. (feet) VERTCON KO0484 ___________________________________________________________________ KO0484 LAPLACE CORR- 1.62 (seconds) DEFLEC99 KO0484 GEOID HEIGHT- -18.82 (meters) GEOID99 KO0484 KO0484 HORZ ORDER - FIRST KO0484 KO0484.The horizontal coordinates were established by classical geodetic methods KO0484.and adjusted by the National Geodetic Survey in November 1997. KO0484 KO0484.The NAVD 88 height was computed by applying the VERTCON shift value to KO0484.the NGVD 29 height (displayed under SUPERSEDED SURVEY CONTROL.) KO0484 KO0484.The Laplace correction was computed from DEFLEC99 derived deflections. KO0484 KO0484.The geoid height was determined by GEOID99. KO0484 KO0484; North East Units Scale Converg. KO0484;SPC UT C - 2,168,754.953 292,896.932 MT 0.99989883 -1 33 00.2 KO0484;SPC NV E - 8,564,858.771 342,404.173 MT 1.00014958 +1 03 56.4 KO0484;UTM 12 - 4,412,764.680 250,127.293 MT 1.00036873 -1 52 15.7 KO0484;UTM 11 - 4,413,225.786 763,609.680 MT 1.00045559 +1 58 26.4 KO0484 KO0484: Primary Azimuth Mark Grid Az KO0484:SPC UT C - IBEPAH AZ MK 2 224 53 47.4 KO0484:SPC NV E - IBEPAH AZ MK 2 222 16 50.8 KO0484:UTM 12 - IBEPAH AZ MK 2 225 13 02.9 KO0484:UTM 11 - IBEPAH AZ MK 2 221 22 20.8 KO0484 KO0484|---------------------------------------------------------------------| KO0484| PID Reference Object Distance Geod. Az | KO0484| dddmmss.s | KO0484| LP0583 WEST PENINSULA PEAK 0002704.0 | KO0484| LP0581 EAST PENINSULA PEAK 0034355.9 | KO0484| LP0575 NORTH PEAK TREE EAST PRONG APPROX.24.4 KM 0045931.3 | KO0484| LP0569 SOUTH PEAK MIDDLE TREE APPROX.23.5 KM 0062043.9 | KO0484| MS0772 DESERT PEAK CAIRN 0170254.1 | KO0484| KO0485 IBEPAH AZ MK APPROX. 3.1 KM 0221154.6 | KO0484| KO0455 ANTELOPE MOUNTAIN=SWASEY PEAK APPROX.71.2 KM 1330628.7 | KO0484| KO0454 SAWTOOTH MOUNTAIN=KNOTCH PEAK APPROX.87.8 KM 1495004.7 | KO0484| JO0545 FRISCO MOUNT TREE 1591043.0 | KO0484| IBEPAH RM 5 5.454 METERS 17510 | KO0484| JO0582 INDIAN PEAK 1784257.9 | KO0484| KP0313 MOUNT MORIAH CAIRN APPROX.66.1 KM 2012127.6 | KO0484| KO0483 RED CHIEF CAIRN APPROX. 3.4 KM 2040728.2 | KO0484| IBEPAH AZ MK 2 2232047.2 | KO0484| IBEPAH RM 6 10.987 METERS 28524 | KO0484| LP0570 IBEPAH SCHOOLHOUSE CUPOLA APPROX.23.8 KM 3461639.8 | KO0484| LP0571 IBEPAH POST OFFICE SE CORNER APPROX.26.2 KM 3474609.6 | KO0484| LP0573 DEVINES GRANARY APPROX.26.2 KM 3474813.3 | KO0484|---------------------------------------------------------------------| KO0484 KO0484 SUPERSEDED SURVEY CONTROL KO0484 KO0484 NAD 83(1986)- 39 49 41.36992(N) 113 55 11.12127(W) AD( ) 1 KO0484 NAD 27 - 39 49 41.58700(N) 113 55 08.13600(W) AD( ) 1 KO0484 NGVD 29 - 3684.3 (m) 12088. (f) VERT ANG KO0484 KO0484.Superseded values are not recommended for survey control. KO0484.NGS no longer adjusts projects to the NAD 27 or NGVD 29 datums. KO0484.See file dsdata.txt to determine how the superseded data were derived. KO0484 KO0484_MARKER: B = BOLT KO0484_SETTING: 66 = SET IN ROCK OUTCROP KO0484 KO0484 HISTORY - Date Condition Recov. By KO0484 HISTORY - 1889 MONUMENTED CGS KO0484 HISTORY - 1944 SEE DESCRIPTION CGS KO0484 HISTORY - 1971 GOOD USGS KO0484 KO0484 STATION DESCRIPTION KO0484 KO0484''DESCRIBED BY COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY 1889 (WE) KO0484''STATION IS ABOUT 15 MILES A LITTLE E OF S FROM IBEPAH POST KO0484''OFFICE, ON IBEPAH PEAK, IN THE DEEP CREEK RANGE OF MOUNTAINS. KO0484''THE PEAK HAS THE GENERAL APPEARANCE OF A ROOF OF A HOUSE WITH KO0484''THE RIDGE EXTENDING E AND W. THE PEAK TERMINATES IN TWO KO0484''PRINCIPAL SUMMITS OF EQUAL HEIGHT, ONE AT THE EXTREME W END KO0484''OF THE CREST AND THE OTHER NEAR THE MIDDLE, THE STATION BEING KO0484''ON THE LATTER. KO0484'' KO0484''STATION IS MARKED BY A COPPER BOLT IN A DRILL HOLE IN SOLID KO0484''ROCK, OVER WHICH IS A LAYER OF MASONRY BUILT BETWEEN THE BASES KO0484''OF THREE SMALL BRICK PIERS USED IN MOUNTING THE INSTRUMENT. KO0484''THE STATION IS NEARLY SURROUNDED BY A RINGWALL OF ROCKS 5 KO0484''FEET HIGH, WITH AN INNER DIAMETER OF 11 FEET. KO0484'' KO0484''FOUR DRILL HOLES IN SOLID ROCK ARE JUST OUTSIDE THE WALL AT THE KO0484''FOLLOWING DISTANCES FROM THE STATION--2.97 METERS KO0484''(9.7 FEET), 3.07 METERS (10.1 FEET), KO0484''3.25 METERS (10.7 FEET), AND 3.18 METERS KO0484''(10.4 FEET). KO0484'' KO0484''IBEPAH ASTRONOMIC STATION, MARKED BY A MASONRY PIER, IS 21.2 KO0484''METERS (70 FEET) N 71 DEG 09 MIN FROM THE STATION. KO0484 KO0484 STATION RECOVERY (1944) KO0484 KO0484''RECOVERY NOTE BY COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY 1944 (EHB) KO0484''ALL MARKS RECOVERED. REFERENCE MARKS 5 AND 6 AND AN AZIMUTH KO0484''MARK WERE ESTABLISHED. KO0484'' KO0484''STATION MARK IS A COPPER BOLT WITH A CROSS MARK ON THE TOP SET KO0484''IN OUTCROPPING BEDROCK. BOLT PROJECTS ABOUT 1 INCH ABOVE THE KO0484''ROCK. STATION IS ABOUT 70 FEET E OF A 1-FOOT-HIGH BRICK PIER KO0484''AND IS NEARLY SURROUNDED BY A 5-FOOT-HIGH HEAVY ROCK WALL KO0484''WHICH HAS AN INNER DIAMETER OF 11 FEET. IT IS LOCATED ON THE KO0484''HIGHEST PART OF THE E PEAK. (NOTE--THE THREE BRICK PIERS KO0484''ORIGINALLY USED FOR MOUNTING THE INSTRUMENT HAVE BEEN REMOVED.) KO0484'' KO0484''REFERENCE MARK 1 IS A LEADED KO0484''DRILL HOLE IN A BOULDER PROJECTING ABOUT 2 FEET ABOVE THE KO0484''GROUND. KO0484'' KO0484''REFERENCE MARK 2 IS A LEADED KO0484''DRILL HOLE IN A BOULDER PROJECTING ABOUT 1 FOOT ABOVE THE KO0484''GROUND. KO0484'' KO0484''REFERENCE MARK 3 IS A LEADED KO0484''DRILL HOLE IN OUTCROPPING BEDROCK PROJECTING ABOUT 2 FEET KO0484''ABOVE THE GROUND. KO0484'' KO0484''REFERENCE MARK 4 IS A LEADED KO0484''DRILL HOLE IN A SMALL BOULDER PROJECTING ABOUT 1 FOOT ABOVE KO0484''THE GROUND. KO0484'' KO0484''REFERENCE MARKS 1 TO 4 ARE LOCATED JUST OUTSIDE THE ROCK WALL KO0484''WHICH SURROUNDS THE STATION AND WERE NOT CUT IN AT THIS KO0484''OCCUPATION. KO0484'' KO0484''REFERENCE MARK 5 IS A BRONZE REFERENCE DISK SET IN A DRILL KO0484''HOLE IN OUTCROPPING BEDROCK PROJECTING ABOUT 1 FOOT ABOVE THE KO0484''GROUND. IT IS ABOUT 10 FEET LOWER IN ELEVATION THAN THE KO0484''STATION MARK AND IS STAMPED IBAPAH NO 5 1944. KO0484'' KO0484''REFERENCE MARK 6 IS A BRONZE REFERENCE DISK SET IN A DRILL KO0484''HOLE IN OUTCROPPING BEDROCK PROJECTING ABOUT 1 INCH ABOVE THE KO0484''GROUND AND IS STAMPED IBAPAH NO 6 1944. IT IS ABOUT 3 FEET KO0484''LOWER IN ELEVATION THAN THE STATION MARK AND IS 1 FOOT E OF KO0484''A 3-FOOT ROCK CAIRN. KO0484'' KO0484''AZIMUTH MARK IS A BRONZE AZIMUTH DISK SET IN A DRILL HOLE IN KO0484''OUTCROPPING BEDROCK PROJECTING ABOUT 10 INCHES ABOVE THE GROUND KO0484''AND IS STAMPED IBAPAH 1944. IT IS 28 PACES ESE OF A DOUBLE KO0484''PINE TREE 3 FEET IN DIAM. AND IS 2 FEET N OF A 2-FOOT ROCK KO0484''CAIRN WITH A POLE IN THE CENTER. KO0484'' KO0484''REFERENCE MARKS 5 AND 6 AND THE AZIMUTH MARK HAVE THE STATION KO0484''NAME SPELLED IBAPAH. KO0484'' KO0484''TO REACH THE STATION FROM IBAPAH, GO S ON THE LEFT FORK FROM KO0484''THE Y-JUNCTION AT THE OLD VACANT STORE BUILDING OPPOSITE THE KO0484''SCHOOLHOUSE FOR 3.2 MILES. THE GOSHUTE INDIAN RESERVATION KO0484''HEADQUARTERS ARE ON THE RIGHT. CONTINUE S ON GRADED ROAD ALONG KO0484''TELEPHONE LINE 8.8 MILES TO THE INDIAN VILLAGE. CONTINUE S ON KO0484''MAIN ROAD 2.1 MILES TO A FORK ABOUT 100 YARDS S OF A SMALL KO0484''BRIDGE. TAKE LEFT FORK AND GO SE UP SAGE SLOPE 3.0 MILES KO0484''TO THE END OF TRUCK TRAVEL AT THE BEGINNING OF A SHELF ROAD KO0484''INTO THE CANYON ON THE LEFT. THE ROAD IS WASHED OUT BEYOND KO0484''THIS POINT. FROM HERE THE STATION CAN BE SEEN AS A HIGH KO0484''DOUBLE PEAK, ABOUT 4 MILES AWAY TO THE ENE, AND JUST OVER THE KO0484''TOP OF A CLOSER RANGE. PACK UP THE CANYON ABOUT 1/4 MILE TO KO0484''A LOG HOUSE AND AN OLD MILL SITE. PASS TO THE LEFT OF THE LOG KO0484''HOUSE AND CROSS THE CREEK. TURN SHARP LEFT (N) AND FOLLOW KO0484''TRAIL FOR ABOUT 200 YARDS TO TOP OF FIRST RIDGE. TURN KO0484''RIGHT AND FOLLOW TRAIL ALONG RIDGE E FOR ABOUT ONE MILE, KO0484''PASSING THROUGH SEVERAL OPEN FIELDS AND PATCHES OF KO0484''WOODS, INTO THE MAIN WASH WHICH LEADS UP TO THE HIGH SADDLE KO0484''BETWEEN THE GRANITE PEAKS TO THE LEFT AND THE KO0484''BROWN-COLORED PEAKS TO THE RIGHT. AFTER ENTERING THE WASH KO0484''FOLLOW THE TRAIL ALONG THE LEFT SIDE OF THE MOUNTAIN KO0484''STREAM FOR ABOUT 1/2 MILE, THEN TURN SHARP LEFT UP THE KO0484''STEEP SLOPE ALONG A BLAZED SWITCH-BACK TRAIL TO THE KO0484''SADDLE. THE AZIMUTH MARK IS AT THIS POINT AND THE STATION CAN KO0484''BE SEEN ABOUT 2 MILES AWAY TO THE NE OF THE HIGH GRANITE PEAK. KO0484''GO NE DOWN A WASH THROUGH THE MEADOW NEARLY TO WHERE THE WASH KO0484''ENTERS WOODS AT END OF MEADOW. TURN LEFT INTO THE WOODS ALONG KO0484''A TRAIL AND FOLLOW THIS TRAIL FOR ABOUT 2-1/2 MILES THROUGH KO0484''WOODS, THROUGH A BURNED-OVER AREA, AND ALONG THE DIVIDE TO KO0484''THE HIGH PEAK AND THE STATION. KO0484 KO0484 STATION RECOVERY (1971) KO0484 KO0484''RECOVERY NOTE BY US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 1971 KO0484''RECOVERED IN GOOD CONDITION. REACHED BY HELICOPTER. KO0484'' KO0484''STATION MARK--COPPER BOLT WITH A CROSS MARK ON THE TOP, SET IN KO0484''OUTCROPPING BEDROCK. BOLT PROJECTS ABOUT 1 IN. ABOVE THE ROCK.
Present-day condition of KO0482 thru KO0485July 2005 trip: Ibapah has the most artifacts / the best condition for a XIXth century BM we found yet. The bolt, the four original leaded drill hole RMs surrounding the stone wall, the two 1944 RMs, and the brick masonry base of the astronomical station are all there. Remnants of wood board structures used to be held together by blacksmiths' square nails, i.e. in all likelihood they also date back to 1880s.
We haven't attempted to recover the original 1889 AZ mark on the North shoulder of nearby Haystack Mtn (KO0485). It is listed among the unpub's in the NGS database, and, therefore, it hasn't be copied over to gc. Being two miles away, it was decided to be too ambitious for this trip. We concentrated on finding other 1889 controls (Red Chief KO0483 and Red Squaw KO0482) instead. These benchmarks are simply cairns on the twin summits of Red Mountain.
We also haven't tried to recover the 1944 AZ MK 2, which should be located somewhere close to the Granite Ck trail. Unfortunately the distance between AZ MK 2 and the BM isn't recorded in the database, so figuring its precise location may be an interesting logical puzzle. More than likely, it is an intersection of the bearing line with the main ridge of Deep Creek Range.
April 2005 trip: Passed by the 1889 AZ MK but haven't attempted to recover, everything was snowbound.