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The Science of Warmth The Science of Warmth  by Scott Dusek

There's a multitude of theories and personal preferences when it comes to staying warm. Possibly the only uniting factor amongst these hypotheses is that they share the same goal - fighting off the cold. This article will explain the basic principles of what creates and maintains warmth.

Basics: An Introduction to Orientation and Navigation Compass Basics: An Introduction to Orientation and Navigation  by vanman798

The basics of compass usage are surprisingly simple and can be mastered quickly; and once learned they will certainly become an invaluable skill for any hiker, mountaineer, back country skier or suchlike outdoor enthusiast. However, if you are anything like most of us, chances are you have been packing a compass around for years, on your outdoor adventures, without fully utilizing it. It’s probably time to change that, isn’t it?

Essentially a compass is nothing more than a magnetized needle, floating in a liquid, and responding to the Earth’s magnetic field consequently revealing directions. Over time compass markers have added features which make compasses work more harmoniously with maps and also more beneficially as stand alone tools. Today, compasses can be classified as one of four types, namely: fixed-dial (the type that you find on a key chain, or that come out of a gum ball machine), floating dial (the needle is an integrated part of the degree dial), cruiser (professional grade instrument used by foresters), and orienteering. For hiking, mountaineering, back country skiing, canoeing, hunting or the like, the orienteering type is the most sensible being accurate to with 2 degrees, not requiring a separate protractor nor map orientation, and being highly affordable.

Climbing -
A Useless Sport? Climbing - A Useless Sport?  by AJones

First of all, I have to say that I eat, live, and breathe climbing. I love to climb – whether it is sport climbing, ice climbing, trad climbing or alpine walls – I love it all. I think we can all agree that climbing brings joy, happiness, and for some, even meaning, into our lives, but I can’t help but think that sometimes we tend to take climbing (and ourselves) far too seriously. I mean, really, what we’re doing is climbing up some rock or ice, to get to the top; and far more often than not, you don’t even get to the actual top of anything; just some arbitrary definition of the top.

Climbing, you could argue, unlike some other sports, isn’t even that entertaining. You’re never going to have millions of people tuned in on Sunday to watch climbing. At its route (no, pun intended), climbing is a very personal and somewhat selfish sport. And of course, that’s what the attraction is for many of us. Climbing allows us to feel a bond with nature; it allows us to be introspective; it allows us to remain fit and agile; it defines our friendships; and sometimes, it even defines who we are. But at the core, it's still only about climbing up something.

Using the
Graduated Density (GD) Filter to Control Lighting in Outdoor Photography Using the Graduated Density (GD) Filter to Control Lighting in Outdoor Photography  by Mark Doiron

One of the most common situations that the outdoor photographer runs into is variance in lighting that exceeds the dynamic range of the film or sensor (think of dynamic range as the ability of the film or sensor to capture both the lighter and darker elements of the picture). Often you’re in the situation where you feel that you have to give up one part of the photograph or another. This is especially true in situations where the sky is much brighter than the land, or where strong shadows exist within parts of the photo. And, with the popularization of digital cameras, this is even more critical, since digital cameras are generally considered to have about one f-stop less of dynamic range than film (making this a strong plus for the continued use of film in certain situations). A very noticeable symptom of this loss of dynamic range for the outdoor digital photographer is the loss of delicate texturing in clouds, giving them a “cartoonish” look. But, regardless of whether you shoot film or digital, the GD filter offers you the opportunity to better control certain lighting challenges.

SummitPost Resource Central SummitPost Resource Central  by Saintgrizzly

This page is and will be a continual work in progress. Resources and references will be added routinely. This page is designed to address common writing mistakes seen on SP regarding posts in the forum or in contribution of various page objects. This page also serves as a "link hub" to many of SP's excellent "how to" resources. Please add any suggestions in the COMMENTS section and we’ll incorporate them into the page content periodically (and erase the comment suggestion once that is done).

Cold Weather Test for Water
Bottles Cold Weather Test for Water Bottles  by Scott

Staying hydrated in the winter is very important. It is hard to drink frozen water! Here is a simple test of waterbottle done to simulate typical conditions in Colorado.

To a
Climber unknown To a Climber unknown  by Gabriele Roth

I started to climb in the summer 1963, easy mountains ... After that holiday, while speaking with one of my childood friends (two years older) I told him about my new "keennes" : so I heard that he was a rock climber (one day he showed me the loft of his house: in the wooden beams he had driven some pitons so that he could train in aided climb along long "overhangs") Some months later he dropped from the summit of the Sigaro (one of the Grignetta's spires) dying (his name was Lucio and many years later I set up a rock climbing school named to him). But this is another story ...

Climbing and Hiking in
France Climbing and Hiking in France  by Andino

From time to time, I see in forums, people asking about what to do in France. The first thing they mention is usually Mont-Blanc and French Alps. It is undoubtedly the most impressive part of our mountains. But France do have other sites in terms of hiking and climbing. This article will provide you with highlights of what you can do. Of course there is much more than what is listed here, but the idea is to give an overview, as many SP pages about French areas and mountains already give complete information.

Report of
Mountaineering Expeditions Visited Pakistan During 2006 Report of Mountaineering Expeditions Visited Pakistan During 2006  by Karrar Haidri

In 2006 a total number of 91 applications were received for grant of Permission to climb various peaks in Pakistan. Out of which 78 applicants were granted permission to climb respective Peaks of their choice including 10 applicants who were granted permission to climb 02 peaks each, whereas 10 expeditions could not be granted permission to climb peaks situated in Hindu Kush Range being too close to troubled Afghanistan border and peaks situated close to war zone Siachen Glacier, 03 expeditions withdrew their applications. Out of 88 expeditions attempting 22 peaks, 40 expeditions have succeeded in putting 199 climbers on the summit of 08 Peaks. A brief resume of successful climbs on various peaks is given here:

Terms of Mountain
Dictionary Terms of Mountain Dictionary  by nikolai79

These are the first steps of the idea some summiposter we have some weeks ago: make a list of useful mountain terms in some languges. I have just added some of the terms I think It must be included.

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