K.F. von Martius
German botanist, 1817.
The Serra dos Órgãos National Park of the was created in 1939 to protect the exceptional landscape and the biodiversity of this passage of the Sea Range in the highland area of Rio de Janeiro. They are 20020ha protected in the municipal districts of Teresópolis, Petrópolis,Magé and Guapimirim(coordinates S 22º25' and 22º32' and W 42º59' and 43º07').
The Serra dos Órgãos National Park protects hillside forests and altitude fields among 200m of altitude and the 2.263m of the Pedra do Sino, summit of the Serra dos Órgãos. The great and abrupt altitude variation created only atmospheres and great biological diversity. The park protects more than 465 species of birds, 83 of mammals and a great number of endemic (that only happen in this area) species.
Besides the beauty and of the importance of the conservation of their species,the Serra dos Órgãos National Park is one of the best local of the country for the practice of mountain sports,as escalade,walk,rapel and other.
The origin of the unusual name is credited to early Portuguese settlers who thought the ensemble of the hill tops resembled the pipes of organs in European cathedrals.
The Park's area is 180 km² and it has 10 peaks higher than 2000 m (6560 ft) and six other peaks over 1500 m (4920 ft) high. The lowest point in the park is located in the relatively flat municipality of Magé, at 145 m (475 ft). The highest peak is Pedra do Sino (Bell Rock), at 2263 m (7424 ft). Most famous formation in the park is the Dedo de Deus (God's Finger) ,which resembles a left hand with its index finger stretched, pointing towards the sky. It is 1692 m (5551 ft) high and can be seen in the background of the of the Rio de Janeiro state, which appears in the center of the state flag.
The park is part of the larger Sea Range chain of mountains, and the most accepted theory about its origin is that it rose about 60 million years ago during earthquakes that caused the Andes to rise. That means it is located in a geographically unstable location, although no incident has ever been recorded in the area.
Temperatures in the Hills can fall as low as 4 °C (39 °F), and the average temperature at 1000 m (3300 ft) is 17 °C (62 °F). Humidity is between 80 and 90% on average, but it can reach 99% at higher altitudes.
Cut for notable net hidrography,acted by the rivers Paquequer, Beija flor, Soberbo and Iconha,the soil of the Park created the dense forest, with several atmospheres. In the secondary vegetation, the palm trees prevail, and, in altitudes up to 500 meters, there is the palm heart occurrence, pindobinhas, plant fiber and, particularly,embaúba.
Between altitudes of 500 and 1.500 meters,the call forest montana,the vegetation reaches 25 meters approximately,where we found species as the baguaçu, jequitibá,cinnamons and cinnamon-saint,very admired by yours adorned yellow.Already above 2.000 meters,the vegetation is represented mainly for grassy and species that grow on the crags.
The fauna is rich and diversified,being constituted in an of their last strongholds in the area.On the branches coatis groups and little anteater are observed,while cutias seek foods on the soil. There are also great carnivorous predators,as the puma,threatened of extinction.Among the threatened birds they are the parrot-of-chest-purple, beaked and jacutinga and they can also be seen the araçaris,forming beautiful contrast with the vegetation. A care that one should have is with the poisonous snakes, as the jararaca and jararacuçu,that camouflaged if they move for the leaves in search of arrested unaware.
Sports and distance of Rio de Janeiro
Besides the beauty and of the importance of the conservation of their species,Serra dos Órgãos National Park is one of the best local of the country for the practice of mountain sports,as escalade,walk,rapel and other.
To 90 kilometers of Rio de Janeiro,or less than two hours for highway, the park receives the whole year great number of visitors. His main access is for the highway BR 116 Rio-Teresópolis.
Serra dos Órgãos National Park
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