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Getting There & Trails

Valaska Dubova Valaská Dubová
On the way from Veľký Choc, from Lucky On trail from Lúčky
Likava castle Likava Castle
The main access point and a regional center is the town of Ružomberok.Train and bus timetables
Trailhead atMarks (stripes against white background)Times of walk up (hr:min)Net elevation gain (m)
 Valaská Dubová blue+green 2:50 960
Vyšný Kubín
Christmas time near the...  
Winter trail at Choc...  
Mt.Velky Choc  


There are two unmanned refuges on the mountain.
RefugeElevation (meters)PhotoDistance from nearest source of water Capacity (persons)Location/Access
Hotel Choč
1 km
Bygone sheepfold at Stredná poľana, blue stripes from Ružomberok/Valaská Dubová, green stripes from Vyšný Kubín.
100 m to the southwest
Wooden shelter with attic, built-in ladder, outside fireplace with benches, red stripes from Lúčky. 
Once Hviezdoslavova útulňa situated about 1 km SSE of Stredná poľana was the only hut in the Choč Mountains, but it was burned by German troops in 1944. It had been opened in 1924 and had three rooms with 20 beds.

Red Tape & Camping

Rocks of Soliska in Velky Choc

Little yellow flowers on the limestones of Veľký Choc

Since 1995 Velký Choč is part of a Site of Community Importance and National Nature Reserve named Choč, with the highest level of protection.There are no fees, no seasonal closures, but you must stick to waymarked trails. Camping is not allowed.

Weather & Rescue Service

Local residents of Choc.  
Misty morning on Velky Choc  
Avalanche risk
Mountain rescue (emergency phone number: 18 300)
Warning: In Slovakia those who do not carry commercial insurance have to pay for any rescue services rendered by Mountain Rescue Service (HZS). Membership of the Austrian Alpine Club (Österreichischer Alpenverein) sorts the problem out.



RouteTrailheadDistanceNet Elevation GainTime (Up)Marks
West ridgeVyšné Hutianske saddle4km427m2hr red
South ridgeJalovec villageabout 11kmover 1100mabout 4hryellow, then blue, then green
South ridgeBobrovecká Vápenicanearly 9kmabout 1050mabout 3.5hr blue, then green
Northern route (via Pálenica saddle)Zuberec town centre9kmabout 1050m3.5hryellow, then red


Bieszczady Zachodnie (PL)     Bukovské vrchy (SK)     Zakhidni Beschady (UA)     Besszádok (HU)

The Bieszczady Mountains belong to the Northeastern Carpathians and are made of flysch, their highest summits of hard sandstone. They are usually divided into the Western and the Eastern Bieszczady. The Western Bieszczady range extends between Łupków Pass (Przełęcz Łupkowska) in the west and Uzhok Pass (Użocka Przełęcz/Uzhotskyi pereval) in the east. Most of the main ridge of the Western Bieszczady constitutes the border between Slovakia and Poland. Its easternmost bit forms the Poland-Ukraine border, then ends just beyond it at the pass of Uzhok in the territory of Ukraine, where the Eastern Bieszczady (in Ukraine known as Skhidni Beskydy, Pikui at 1408 m) begins. The highest summit of the Western Bieszczady, Tarnica, stands inside the southeast tip of Poland, topping out at 1346 m. To the northeast of the Western Bieszczady strech their foothills named Góry Sanocko-Turczańskie, i.e. the Sanok-Turka Mountains (in Ukraine known as Verkhnodnistrovski Beskydy), reaching 1024 m. (People on the ground tend to think these mountains are part of the Bieszczady.) West of the Western Bieszczady, beyond the Osława River, Łupków Pass and the sources of the Laborec extends the Low Beskid (1002 m). To the southwest sits Vihorlat at 1076 m, belonging in the Carpathian volcanic belt. A bit further to the southeast rise the massifs of Ostra Hora and Polonyna Rivna (1482 m), which were once regarded as part of the Bieszczady but are now considered a distinct range.
Tarnica and BorzavaTarnica
The rocky ridge of Mount Wetlinska Meadow (1253 m)Sandstone on top
Three polonynasLooking south
Beech-fir woodlandPrimeval beech-fir woodland

The Bieszczady mountains differ from the other mountain ranges in Poland rising over 1200 m in that they lack the upper montane forest level, normally formed of spruce in this part of Europe. Above the beech woodland stretches a distinctive grassland zone called połonina (Polish) or polonyna (Ukrainian). This is believed to be a natural phenomenon, although some scientists disagree. The treeline in the Bieszczady often runs strikingly low, a couple of hundred meters below the expected 1250 m, which is due to a few centuries of grazing. Until the 15th century few people had lived in the Bieszczady, but the second half of the second millennium A.D. saw extensive colonization, exploitation of woodland in the valleys and its destruction on mountain tops and the upper slopes so that it made way for pastures, on which enormous herds of livestock were grazed. As a result, the poloninas have been greatly extended and the treeline lowered. 

View from Pass ( 1238 m) Polonina in summer
Typical landscape in BieszczadyAt treeline
The Sun of BieszczadyPolonina in winter
Krywe valleyWhere a village sat
Extensive grazing in the Western Bieszczady as well as overpopulation in the area ended in the middle of the 20th century, when after World War II the local Ukrainian/Rusyn population was deported and dispersed in the north and west of Poland in retaliation for genocide against Poles committed by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. Since then the Western Bieszczady has undergone rewilding - nature has replaced human management. Now these mountains rank among the wildest corners of Europe and can be considered a true 'wildlife hotspot'. There is hardly any other place in Europe where you can encounter such a wide range of ungulates (European bison aka wisent, elk, red deer, wild boar, roe deer) and predators (brown bear, wolf, lynx, wild cat, fox). Please see chapter 8 for more information.


The highest summits of the Western Bieszczady rise in the southeast corner of Poland. 
Krzemień - Halicz (1333m) [Bieszczady Mountains - Poland] The Połoninas Ridge 
There are several mountain ridges in the Polish part of the range:
  • The main ridge - both an international border and an important water divide trending WNW-ESE whose highest summit is Wielka Rawka (1304 m)
  • The Ridge of the Połoninas, which stretches to the north of the main ridge, parallel to it, and boasts the highest summits in the Western Bieszczady: Tarnica at 1346 m, Połonina Caryńska at 1297 m and Połonina Wetlińska at 1255 m  
  • Wysoki Dział in the west (Wołosań at 1071 m), east of the Osława River: few human visitors, vast forest, good chance of seeing the big Carpathian mammals, such as the bear and the wisent
  • Łopiennik group (1069 m), east of the ridge of Wysoki Dział
  • Otryt (Trochaniec, 939 m), on the north side of the San River just above Solina Dam. The ridge of Otryt is sometimes classified as part of the Sanok-Turka Mountains
Smoking BieszczadyWysoki Dział
Lopiennik from FalowaŁopiennik
From Mt.Korbania to the EastOtryt ridge from Łopiennik group
San river in DwernikSan River
In Slovakia, the Western Bieszczady mountains are called Bukovské vrchy. In the west they are surrounded by Laborecká vrchovina (905 m) and in the south by Beskydské predhorie (661 m). They are covered by extensive woods which contain clusters of primeval beech forest inscribed on the World Heritage List as part of the Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany. Nature is not the only thing that can be found there. In the villages of Ulicske Krive, Rusky Potok and Topola stand wooden churches with rare iconographic decorations of the interior. Bukovské vrchy can be divided into two subgroups: Bukovce in the north, whose highest summit is Veľký Bukovec at 1012 m, and Nastaz in the south (800 m).