You might be interested in Charles Brooks' review from 1940: the Worst Weather in the World. It seems our knowledge hasn't advanced much since then.
Thanks; I've read it several times. Unfortunately not much data was available back then. A few tidbits are that he uses Mount Rose as indicative of the conditions of the high Sierra even though it is nearly 4000 feet lower than the highest peaks. It would be like using Pinkham Notch as indicative of the Whites summits, so it is strange he even mentioned it. As far as I know there still isn't any data from the high Sierra (and likely won't be since many of those peaks are in Wilderness areas/NP's where most wouldn't want them). Longs Peak is similar to Mt Washington wind wise and a bit colder temp wise, but since the data only lasted for a short time vs 100+ years, it's hard to compare them and others and of course the data wasn't available back then. With more recent data from other mountains, Mt. Washington may have lost some of it's previous uniqueness, but it will always still be unique for the lengh of record from which data is compiled.
Very few mountains have weather data and very much fewer out west. It seems that hardly any of them above timberline are operating anymore, but on the plus side, we wouldn't want to encounter stations on our climbs either. Still, if the mountain already has a road or radio tower on top, might as well collect weather data. The summit of White Mountain CA has been collecting weather data, but I don't know where to obtain the averages (though I have seen data on a few of the extremes that were reported there, such as the recent below zero reading in June). Weather data (in the climbing season only) is taken from the West Buttress at well over 14,000 feet, but I don't know where to obtain the averages. Mount Evans (CO)collected data for a while, but it seems rather questionable. Back east, Grandfather Mountain is another one with data, so maybe I can add that one sometime.