is a name for the mountain and its highest summit, situated in Lička Plješivica massif
region of Croatia.
The topography of Lika is characterized by high massifs and mountain ranges among which karstic fields and high plains called polje
lay. Those fields are found at altitudes ranging from 430 m to 660 m above sea level and are separated from each other by limestone ridges such is Kremen´s.
Although Kremen´s summit, with its 1,590 m of height, holds somewhere around 60th place on the-highest-summits list of Croatia, Kremen as a mountain is the 5th highest in the State.
Kremen is shared by two Croatian counties Zadar County
(Zadarska županija) and Lika-Senj County
(Ličko-senjska županija). It is situated 15 kms SW of Ozeblin
(1,657 m), the highest peak of Lička Plješivica massif. In fact, Kremen is situated in the area where the highest part of Lička Plješivica massif
ends (that is Lička Pljesivica in "narrow sense", with peaks as are Ozeblin and Gola Plješivica 1,648 m, Trovrh 1,620,…) and continue further somewhat lower and less forested in SE direction - in direction of Poštak
mountain, Zrmanja river source
region and the southeastern end of long Velebit
massif. That makes Lička Plješivica the second longest mountain massif in Croatia, with almost 100 km in length.
Photo 1. Approaching Kremen from southern side, from Mazin Pass
Roughly said, Kremen mountain spreads over almost rectangular shape that is split in two halfs by Mazin pass-Banovo pass-Podkuk (Udbina)
forest road, just one of many forest roads in the area, used mosty for forest exploitation.
Natural borders of Kremen mountain are (starting from its NW then counter-clockwise): SE edge of Krbavsko polje
(Krbava field) – Bruvanjsko polje
(Bruvno filed) – Mazinski prijevoj
or Mazinska previja
(Mazin pass; 818 m) – Mazinsko polje
(Mazin field) – Lapačko polje
(Lapac field) - Kuk
mountain pass (1,142 m) - and back again, Krbava field.
On its northern side Kremen is separated from Ozeblin
mountain by Kuk pass
and Udbina-Veljun-Donji Lapac
local road. Along its western and south-western slopes runs Udbina-Bruvno
section of Zagreb-Split
state road (D-1). On its southern and south-eastern side Kremen is separated from south-eastern parts of Licka Plješivica massif and its first mountain neighbor Urljaj
by Bruvno-Mazin-Donji Lapac
road (D-506) and Mazin pass
. Mazin pass also separates Bruvno field from Mazin field.
Description – Morphology
Visually, Kremen is a wide mountain the best viewed from the village of Bruvno
(750 m) where it rises somewhat less than 1,000 meters above surrounding Bruvanjsko polje
) one of many karstic Lika highlands fieds. Kremen´s highest part is characterised by a long rocky barrier rising above surrounding forests on southern side of its main mountain ridge. The most of Kremen´s triangular-shaped main ridge is covered with woods, except narrow but elongated meadow (above 1,500 meters altitude) extending from the summit in eastern direction, following the south-eastern part of the ridge and recognizable rocky side, which enables the easiest aproach to the summit from this direction. The highest peaks, all higher than 1,400 m, are situated here (Kremen vrh
(Kremen-summit) 1,590 m, Kovaruša
1,469 m and Zvijezda
Photo 2. Kremen from slopes of Urljaj
From the main mountain ridge more wooded subridges spread in all directions, radiantly:
1. In direction one subridge with two distinctive flanks, the first one with Vijojla peak (1,282 m) and further away to the south, above Bruvno and Mazin fields Šolobanica (1,145 m) peak.
2 To south-west and west of the main ridge, two short spurs spread in direction of Klapavica hamlet on D-1 State road, both semi-encircling the hamlet. These are Vijojla (again the same name, but somewhat lower peak - 996 m) and furher north Anjgiruša (1,076 m).
3. To the north-west of the main ridge runs the longest and the most distinctive subridge, spreading in the same NW-SE direction direction as is that of Kremen´s main ridge and also prevailing direction of wider Kremen area and the Dinaric Alps overall. Beside thick forests present in this area there are also more larger meadows around the highest peaks. Main peaks in this ridge are Vršina (1,378 m) and further to NW the highest Veliko Rteševo (1,390 m) and Malo Rteševo (1,218 m).
3.1. More spurs run from this subridge. These are: a) Ljuti ogradak (1,208 m) and b) Pištalska kosa (1,282 m). At the nort-westernmost end of Kremen, a small cluster of three smaller mountain-tops (Babina glava 1,095, Ivanov vrh 1,094 m and Kosovčov vrh 926 m) rise a bit aside off the main mountain part and they touch the outskirts of the town of Udbina.
4. To the north-east of the main ridge and across Banovo mountain pass and main forest road (Mazin pass-Banovo-Podkuk) spreads another spur with two dominating mountain-tops: Bijeli vrh (1,389 m), Opaljeni vršci (1,315 m). Thee areas are covered with thick forests of Kremen-šuma (Kremen-forest). Northern parts of this spur descent into vast Sarajevo meadow (973 m).
5. Further to the NE of the main ridge and of lower Bijeli vrh-Opaljeni vršci spur there is an elongated depression behind which another ridge, named Javornik (1,282 m) rise.
6. East of Javornik there is one transitional area where Kremen´s ridges and mountain-spurs (spreading from SW to NE in this part) adjoin another group of chained peaks that make "the backbone of Lička Plješivica and run in the massif´s prevailing NW-SE direction for almost 100 kilometers (from Gola Plješivica, over many peaks including Ozeblin all the way to Poštak on its soth-eastern end). Peaks in this area are: Rajčetina kosa (1,265 m), Jankovića vrh (1,248 m), Ilića kosa (1,207 m), Točkova greda (1,147 m) and other.
Another very recognizable detail of Kremen is Ledina, an elongated grassy meadow stretching in east-west direction through Kremen´s forests just underneath southern side of its main rocky ridge. It is a pictoresque, gently inclined, 200 m wide and 1 km long field. Ledina is also known for two water springs that never dry up, both of them in Ledinas´s central part (one of them called Klapavica at 1,420 m – from this spring the water was captivated, collected and conducted to nearby Klapavica hamlet). Ledina is dominated by a long rocky ridge of Kremen´s summit and on the opposite side of its width, by nice views in southern and south-westrn direction; those of Velebit massif especially attractive.
Tables - Major peaks on Kremen mountain
Photo 3. Recognizable Ledina meadow under Kremen´s summit-ridge
|Name ||Height (in meters)||Coordinates-Position|
|Kremen vrh (summit)||1,590 m||44.4666667 N 15.8833333, E Zadar County|
|Name ||Height (in meters)||Coordinates-Position|
|Veliko Rteševo||1,390 m||44.4833333 N, 15.8166667 E Lika-Senj County|
|Bijeli vrh||1,389 m||44.4725000 N, 15.9158333 E Zadar County|
|Vršina||1,378 m||44.4833333 N, 15.6666667 E Lika-Senj County|
|Opaljeni vršci||1,315 m||44.4747222, N 15.9008333 E Zadar County|
|Vršak||1,314 m||44.4663889, N 15.9061111 E|
|Pištalska kosa||1,282 m||44.5011111, N 15.8616667 E|
|Javornik (ridge)||1,292 m||44.4891667 N, 15.9233333 E|
|Vijojla (SE)||1,282 m||44.454444 N, 15.9005556 E|
|Rajčetina kosa ||1,265 m||-|
|Jankovića vrh ||1,248 m||-|
|Kurozeb||1,232 m||44.4972222 N,15.9180556 E|
|Šulin vrščić||1,231 m||-|
|Mali vrščić||1,230 m||-|
|Malo Rteševo||1,218 m||Lika-Senj County|
|Ljuti Ogradak||1,208 m||44.5022222 N, 15.8463889 E|
|Ilića kosa||1,207 m||-|
|Oštri vrh||1,162 m||-|
|Vrščić ||1,161 m||-|
|Točkova greda||1,147 m||-|
|Šolobanica (and Glavica 1063 m)||1,145 m||44.4397222 N, 15.9044444 E Zadar County |
|Babina glava||1,095 m||-|
|Pošta||1,094 m||44.5055556 N, 15.9363889 E|
|Ivanov vrh||1,094 m||44.5066667 N, 15.7922222 E|
|Sedlarov vrh||1,092 m||-|
|Vijojla (SW)||997 m||44.4544444 N, 15.9005556 E Zadar County|
|Kosovčov vrh||926 m||-|
|Name ||Height (in meters)||Coordinates-Position|
|Sarajevo (meadow)||-||44.5 N, 15.8861111 E|
|Bruvno (village)||-||44.4011111 N, 15.8958333 E Zadar County|
|Mazin (village)||-||44.4525 N, 15.9669444 E Zadar County|
|Kovačevići (hamlet)||-||44.4441667 N, 15.9136111 E Zadar County|
|Krivošije(hamlet)||-||44.4141667 N, 15.93 E Zadar County|
|Udbina (town)||-||44.5305556 N, 15.7655556 Lika-Senj County|
Kremen abounds in forests. The most of its slopes and the peaks are rounded and forested – mostly covered with beech and spruce. Only few mountain-tops rise over forest lines, usually with nice grassy meadows and nice viewpoints. Overall it is rich in animal world and flora, as well as fresh water springs.
Photo 4. Kremen´s summit-ridge and Ledina meadow
The summit is treeless rounded grassy meadow rising over the rocky barrier and surrounding forests. At the very top, the summit is marked by a geodetic column (used for trigonometrical measurements) made of concrete.
Because of its island-like position above surrounding carstic fields, its wide, relatively gentle slopes, and treeless summit ridge, Kremen is excellent viewpoint. The view is wide in all directions, and especially attractive in direction of Velebit masiff
, other parts of Lička Plješivica
, Central Lika mid-range
and high mountains of Western Bosnia
East of its summit Kremen´s slopes descend into Mazin field
village situated on its SE edge, on Bruvno-Dobroselo
road. Further above this field, forested lower mountain tops of SE part of Licka Pljesivica massiff rise gradually (most of them around 1,200 m high, as are Jasenov vrh
1,278 m, Vršak Dvokića
1,226 m, Majstorovića kosa
1,273, Ilića kosa
1,207, Točkova greda
1,147m). More to the east is upper Una river
valley and canyon. Around Una river there are more smaller fields with villages of Doljani
. In this area Una river is also a natural boundary between Croatia and Bosnia&Herzegovina. Across Una river canyon are two high elongated mountains of Western Bosnia: Osječenica
(1,791 m) and futher behind Klekovača
(1,961 m); and rising above Una river valley also from Bosnian side somewhat lower Bobara
(1,267 m) and Vučjak
Photo 5. Eastern view
To the south-east of Kremen, rising behind Bruvno and Mazin fields is Urljaj peak
(1,295 m) and further beind is undulating montain area with more higher summits of Lička Plješivica´s SE continuation, as are: Gutešin vrh
(1,416 m), Orozovac
(1,399), and Lisac
(1,335 m) more to the right. Between Gutešin vrh and Orozovac is deep but short Dabašnica
river canyon. Over those peaks more to SE are Poštak
mountain (1,421 m) and Panos
peak (1,329 m). Far away behind Poštak is high Dinara
massif with some of its mountains (Ilica, Dinara, Troglav-Bat
Photo 6. View in southern direction
Southern and South-Western Views
Photo 7. View in south-eastern direction
South of Kremen lays vast Bruvno field
which continues southward to Gračačko polje
(Gračac field) some 10 kms away where town of Gračac is situated. These fields are easy to recognize from above because Zagreb-Split state road is passing over them in north-south direction. Looking from Kremen´s summit, left of the state road are the westernmost edges of Lička Pješivica´s SE continuation with lowe forested mountain-tops like: Tomašev vrh
1,155 m and Crni vrh
1,011 m rising just above the town of Gračac
. Right from Zagreb-Split state road is south-eastern part of Central Lika mid-range massif
) with Jelovi vrh
peak (1,176 m), Jasenar
(1,176 m) and many other peaks between 900 and 1,200 m in height.
In the background, for dozens of kilometers in lenght, the Southern and Western views are dominated by huge Velebit massif
and its more regonizable parts (South-Eastern
and Southern Velebit
and highest parts with Sveto brdo
and Vaganski vrh
West of the summit one can see some of Kremen´s western mountain-tops like Anjgiruša
(1,076 m), Vršina
(1,378 m), Veliko Rteševo
(1,390 m) and Malo Rteševo
(1,218 m). Just below those peaks runs Zagreb-Split State road and its´ Bruvno - Udbina section. More to the West, behind southern parts of Krbava field
rise more peaks of mid-height Central Lika masiff
, and its mountaint tops with average height between 900 and 1,200 m. Further behind this massif lays Lika´s vastest Lika field
). Whole background is dominated by Sothern, Central
parts of Velebit
Photo 8. Western view from Kremen´s summit
Just north of the summit are thick forests called Kremen-šuma
(Kremen-forest) ending with one larger grassy opening, a basin-like meadow named Sarajevo
(cca 950 m alt.) and more smaller ones like Kriva draga
. Kremen´s northern side descend gradually over more subridges and mountain-tops (800-1300 m alt.) into Krbavsko polje
(Krbava field). NW of the summit around Javornik Ridge
(1,292 m) is another vast forested area called Javornik šuma
(Javornik-forest). This forest stretches to the easternmost parts of wider Kremen area where it joins the backbone ridge of Lička Plješivica massif (running in NW-SE directon). Behind last of Kremen´s eastern peaks the mountain descend steeply into Lapačko polje
(Lapac field) and Una river canyon
. Far behind the Una river in NE direction a vast mountain of Grmeč
(1,604 m) in Bosnia can be seen. NW of the summit, still on Kremen mountain the peak of Veliko Rteševo
(1,390 m), with more open space, grassy areas, dominates this part of the mountain.
North of Udbina-Lapac road Ozeblin
, the highest peak of Lička Plješivica dominates the view, together with close Rudi Lisac
(1,608m) standing in front of it. West of both peaks a deep cut Kozja Draga
runs in Krbava field direction. Krbava field
is a vast karstic field west of Kremen where houses of the town of Udbina
can clearly be seen. Behind Ozeblin one can see vast areas of Lička Plješivica covered with thick forests finishing with Gola Plješivica
peak (Barren Plješivica 1,649 m) the second highest and one of the northernmost peaks in the massif.
Photo 9. North-western view from Kremen´s summit
Photo 10. Northern view from Kremen´s summit
Like the rest of Lička Plješivica massif, and despite its beauty, attrativeness, and accessibility, Kremen and surrounding areas are very lonely places. Surrounding Lika region is the least populated region of Croatia. There are few mountain trails, and no objects at all suited for mountaineers on surrounding mountains. Although Kremen is one of the most visited mountains in the massif don´t expect a lots of visitors, most of the times you will be the only person or a group climbing the mountain on a certain day.
Classical and the most used climbs to Kremen are those from village of Bruvno and from Mazin pass (with 3 options) and the forth one is from Klapavica hamlet
on D-1 Zagreb-Split road.
Generally, Kremen´s summit is easiliy accessible by a non-paved forest road, which runs from Mazin pass over Sarajevo meadow in Udbina direction further north, thus splitting Kremen mountain in two parts, almost the same in size. The highest point on this road is Banovo pass
, a lower pass situated just under eastern edge of Kremen´s main ridge, and just an hour away from its summit.
1. Classical Approaches – From Bruvno; with 3 options
Photo 11. Kremen´s thick forests
Marked path begins in the hamlet of Bruvno by the small grocery store or "Mesić" restaurant, where D-1 state road (Zagreb-Plitvice-Split) intersects the local D-506 road (Mazin-Dobropolje-Gornji Lapac). From there you continue by foot following the markations, in NE direction or simply drive for another 6 kms (D-506) untill you reach Mazinski prijevoj (Mazin pass). This is a small pass where the road makes sharp serpentine (sharp right turn) and continues further in direction of village of Mazin and Gornji Lapac. On Mazin pass you leave the paved road. You can leave your car at the pass and continue by foot, over vast meadows, in northern direction, following a non-paved path. You will walk along the edges of Bruvno field from your left and Mazin field from your right side, and head directly toward Kremen, rising in front of you, in distance, and in direction of hamlet Kovačevići. You can walk or drive this road.
In case your option was to walk from the beginning, all the way from Bruvno, you should follow the local D-506 road in Mazin direction and after 3 kms take off the road to a small path at your left. By this path you reach a small hamlet of Čubure
in less than 10 minutes. Turn right in the hamlet and after some walk you should reach the above mentioned non-paved road from Mazin pass, somewhere close to the villlage of Kovačevići
Both approaches, the one from Bruvno via Čubure and the other via Mazin passs are marked all the way to Kovčevići hamlet.
From the hamlet Kovačevići one single and fully marked trail will lead you to the summit of Kremen mountain. In the first section, this road climbs gradually over eastern slopes of Šolobanica
peak. After 5 km from Mazin pass the forest road cuts a steep grassy dale named Luka
with small but strong source of the same name Luka
(this place is 5 km away from Mazin pass). Here, where the road makes sharp turn right you should turn left upwards, leaving the road, and after 40 minutes climb through thick beech forests you reach Ledine meadow
. As soon as you arrive to Ledina look for a small path heading right and steeply upwards to climb up the southern rocky part of Kremen´s summit ridge. When you leave the forest and reach reach grassy meadow on the ridge, turn left and walk for another 20 minutes untill you reach the top. From Luka source to the summit there is 1h 20 minutes of walk.
From Mazin pass to the summit is 2:30 h walk you climb about 770 m
From Bruvno, via Čubure and Kovačevići is a 3h walk and cca 800 climb
Another option is to continue further by the forest road, from Luka source, for another 1 km (from right side you are passing by eastern ridge of Kremen´s summit) in direction of Banovo pass
underneath of Kremen mountain ridge´s eastern end. The road continues from Banovo northwards through thick forests untill it touches Udbina-Lapac road
, further to the north. Before Banovo pass you should leave the road an turn left directly in western direction, the shortest way up to Kremenčak ridge which will take you further up to the main summit-ridge.
Photo 12. Practical map showing approaches to Kremen and Urljaj
2. From bus station in the village of Klapavica
on D-1 State road
(14 km south of the town of Udbina), walk across the fields up the grassy meadows in NE direction cutting some forests between the slopes of Anjgirusa
(1,076 m) and Vijojla
(997 m) peaks and after reaching a certain height and vast grassy meadows east of Anjgirusa s peak turn east to reach western edge of elongated Ledenice meadow, situated jus bellow Kremen´s main ridge. This climb lasts about 3 hours and it is suggested jost for those with good sense of orientation, because it is not marked.
URLJAJ (1,295 m)
Urljaj is a smaller triangular-shaped mountain, the first SE neighbor of Kremen, which is also a nice destination for all those who visit Kremen area. Is it a bit lower than Kremen but offers a nice views, including those of Kremen itself. Urlaj is encircled with Mazin field from the North, Bruvno field from the East and the South, and its eastern slopes are connected to the backbone ridge of Lička Plješivica massif (the one running in NW-SE directon) over more small grassy plateaus and ridges.
Urljaj has four main mountain-tops close to each other and distributed in two pairs (two-by-two), all of them between 1,200 and 1,295 m high. The summit of Urljaj is Veliki Urljaj
(Large Urljaj) a 1,295 m high peak that stands in pair - connected with the same ridge to Mali Urljaj
(Lesser Urljaj, 1,266 m). This highest part of Urljaj has two gently curved tops, covered with meadows on its southern and south-eastern side. This enables you to enjoy great panoramas in eastern, southern and western directions.
Photo 13. Urljaj from north-west
|MOUNTAIN-TOPS OF URLJAJ|
|Name ||Height (in meters)||Coordinates-Position|
|Veliki Urljaj||1,295 m||44.4127778 N 15.9455556 E|
|Mali Urljaj||1,266 m||44.4083333 N 15.9525 E|
|Vršeljak Manić||1,223 m||44.4161111 N 15.9583333 E|
The central parts of Urljaj, especially between two main pairs of mountain-tops are covered with forest. All lower slopes of Urljaj, those descending to Bruvno and Mazin field are grassy and treeless.
Don´t be deceived by the sight of Urljaj. It does not look very high and looks very approachable, but the climbs to its summit from neigboring karstic fields are steep and last approximatelly 1 hour.
The best approach to the summit of Urlalj is from the hamlet of Krivošije
, on its western foothills. You can approach Krivošije from Bruvno direction, by using local Bruvno-Mazin-Lapac
(D-506) road. When coming from Bruvno (in Mazin direction) turn right after app. 2 km to a non-paved road crossing high grass meadows and some cultivated fields (called Žitnik
). When you reach the houses of Krivošije head upwards over steep meadows (Ravne strane) to a cutting in forests, today choked with rank vegetation. This cutting can be clearly seen when approaching Urljaj from this direction. After passing through the cutting in the frest you will reach grassy ridge, where you should turn left and continue over steep grassy meadows untill you rech the summit.
The configuration of Urljaj and its treeless lower slopes enable you to plan your climbs (or even when you don´t have any plans in advance) from many directions – and in the most of the cases without large orientational problems. F.e. from Bruvno, via the bridge over Otuća river
- Ubovići hamlet
- Radakovići hamlet
and many others.
Photo 14. On Urljaj
Photo 15. Panoramic View From Urljaj in Eastern and South-Eastern directions
The most convenient trailhead to climb Kremen is Bruvno
, a village placed on D-1 state road (Zagreb-Split), situated between towns of Udbina
(at 21 km distance) and Gračac
(14 km away). You can get to Bruvno by car or bus from Zagreb (204 km), Split (160 km) or Zadar (85 km) directions.
v Getting to Bruvno by bus
Before the opening of A-1 (Zagreb-Split-Dubrovnik highway; in 2004.-2005. period) many regular bus lines passed through Bruvno from Zagreb in direction of Split, Zadar and other towns along the Adriatic coast and vice versa, but today after many bus liners had switched their buses to highway the number of busses that regularly drive on D-1 state road and pass through Bruvno had fallen sharply to only a few in a day. Bruvno nowadays seems like a very desolate place, as well as are the mountains in the vicinity. Buses operate more often during high tourist season, from June-September.
More information on bus timetables can be obtained from:
8 Zagreb Bus Station
8 Split Bus Station
(Buses from Split to: Gračac (8 buses Daily), Bruvno (app. 2 buses daily), Udbina (8 buses daily)
8 Info on Zadar Bus Station-bus schedule
Buses from Zadar to: Gračac (5 buses daily), Udbina (8 times daily), Bruvno (app. 2 buses daily).
The town of Gračac (14 km away from Bruvno) has the most convenient bus connections in the area, but be aware this is only transit bus station and no bus departure from this point, so come at least 15 minutes in advance of your scheduled bus (Gračac Bus Station, tel number 00385 23 773283).
In Gračac you can take on (or take off) buses in many directions: Zadar (on the coast, 2-5 times daily), Donji Lapac (1 connection on workdays), Gospić (on A-1 highway, 2 connections on workdays), Rijeka (1 daily), Split (up to 10 times daily depending on season), Zagreb (up to 10 times daily). There are also more international lines as are those for: Germany (most of them drive directly to many Greman cities), Austria (transfer in Zagreb), Serbia, Switzerland (transfer in Zagreb) and Italy (transfer in Zagreb).
t Getting to Bruvno by train
Photo 16. Panoramic View of Kremen´s summit ridge, from Ledina meadow
No railway passes through Bruvno, therefore Gračac (14 km away) and Gospić (63 km away) are the nearest railway stations. You can get to Gračac and Gospić from direction of Zagreb (transfer point for other international and national destinations), Rijeka, Split, Zadar and Šibenik.
There are about 4 trains operating daily in Gračac area, headed in Zagreb and Spit directions mostly.
For more information on train connections connect to Croatian Railways (HŽ)
Getting to Bruvno by car
If you come from Zagreb the Croatian Capital you have two most convenient options: to use A-1 (Zagreb-Split-Dubrovnik) highway from Zagreb-via Karlovac-Bosiljevo-Gospić and exit in Sveti Rok (and then continue in Gračac direction) , or to use State Road No1 (D-1) via Plitvice Lakes NP.
From the coastal cities also use A1 highway till Sveti Rok exit or other state roads taking you to the town of Gračac.
From Zagreb (coming from Slovenian (Ljubljana, Maribor), Austrian (Graz, Salzburg), Hungarian directions)
1. By highway: From Zagreb take A1 in Split direction (Zagreb-Karlovac-Bosiljevo-Otočac-Gračac-Sveti Rok) and exit the highway in Sveti Rok exit. From Sveti Rok to Gračac and Bruvno.
2. By D-1 State Road: Zagreb-Karlovac-Slunj-Plitvice lakes NP-Korenica-Udbina-Bruvno
From Rijeka (coming from Italian, Slovenian directions)
1. Using State Roads: (D-8 State Road) Rijeka – Senj; (D-23 State Road) Senj - Žuta Lokva; (D-50 State Road) Otočac – Gospić – Gračac; (D-1 State Road) Gračac – Bruvno.
1a. From Žuta Lokva you can also take A1 highway in Split Direction: Žuta Lokva- Otočac – Gospić- Sveti Rok and exit in Sveti Rok.
2. Using state Roads: (D-8 State Road) Rijeka – Senj; (D-23 State Road) Senj – Žuta Lokva; (D-50 State Road) Žuta Lokva – Otočac; (D-52 State road) Otočac – Korenica; (D-1 Stste Road in Split direction) Korenica - Udbina – Bruvno.
3. By highway: From Rijeka take A6 in Zagreb direction (Rijeka – Delnice – Bosiljevo), in Bosljevo2 junction take A1 in Split direction (Ogulin – Gospić) to Sveti Rok exit. From Sveti Rok to Gračac and Bruvno by State Road 50.
1. Using D-1 State Road: Split – Sinj – Knin – Gračac – Bruvno
2. Using State Roads: (D-8 State Road) Split – Šibenik; (D-33 State Road) Šibenik – Knin; (D-1 State Road) Knin – Gračac – Bruvno.
3. By highway: From Split take A1 in Zagreb direction (Split-Šibenik-Zadar-Sveti Rok) and exit in Sveti Rok. From Sveti Rok to Gračac and Bruvno by State Road 50.
1. Using State Roads: (D-8 State road) Zadar – Posedarje – Maslenica; (D-54 State Road) Maslenica - Obrovac – Gračac; (D-1 State Road) Gračac – Bruvno.
2. Using State Roads: (D-27 State Road) Zadar – Zemunik – Karin – Obrovac; (D-54) Obrovac – Gračac; (D-1 State Road) Gračac - Bruvno
3. By highway: From Zadar take A1 in Zagreb direction (Zadar – Posedarje – Sveti Rok), and exit in Sveti Rok. From Sveti Rok to Gračac and Bruvno by State Road 50.
j Getting to Bruvno by plane
If coming by plane you can choose between three nearest airports: Zagreb, Zadar and Split. Zagreb Airport is the most usuall gateway to Croatia. From there you have the option to reach Bruvno and Kremen by bus, train or car. You can also transfer to planes for Split or Zadar, and from there also continue to Bruvno by bus, train or by car.
Info about international and domestic flights to Zagreb on Zagreb International Airport homepage
(flights from/to many European and Mediterranean destinations)
Info about international and domestic flights to Split on Split Airport homepage
(flights from/to European and Mediterranean destinations mostly)
Info about international and domestic flights to Zadar on Zadar Airport homepage
(flights from/to Western European destinations mostly)
o Getting to Bruvno by boat
Cities of Split and Zadar are connected by ferries and passenger ships with more ferry services that operate between the ports from both sides of the Adriatic sea (Italian and Croatian).
You can take ferries (or catamarans) from the ports of Ancona or Pescara in Italy to reach one the ports of Split and Zadar on the other side of the Adriatic. During summer season much more ships operate, but the crowds during this period will force you to think about booking your tickets in advance (especially if you plan to cross the sea with your car).
To reach Bruvno from the ports of Zadar and Split you can continue you travel by bus, train (transfer in Gračac or Gospić to Bruvno) or car/rent-a-car.
Photo 17. Approaching Kremen
No fees, no permits either needed.
Camping and Accomodation
There are no mountaineering objects, neither on Kremen and Urljaj or in surrounding mountains, except on nearby Velebit massif.
As the mountain is away of busy tourist areas and very scarsely populated, camping is not strictly prohibited. There are some nice meadows in the area, some close to the main mountain ridge and some in nearby fields.
Since climbs to Kremen or Urljaj are mostly one day excursions the best accomodaton solution is private accomodation in nearby villages and towns, as are Gračac
and area around Plitvice Lakes National Park
. All this places are, at the most, just one hour´s drive from departure points for Kremen or Urljaj climbs. Also, the Adriatic coast, full of accomodation possibilities, is just an hour away from Kremen, by car.
Photo 18. Life on Kremen
When to Climb
It is possible to climb Kremen in all seasons, although the winter conditions can sometimes be very harsh, the winters long and rich in snow. The road from Bruvno to Mazin and other local roads that surround Kremen, can be out of service during blizzards and thick layer of snow in December to March period. Because of Kremen´s exposed position the winds in the area especially northern winds can be very strong and cold, and crating blizzards and low visibility. Snow layer on its top parts surrounding slopes and deep forests can last from November to April or even early May, in average.
Spring, Fall and even summer climbs can be very pleasant. The transition between coastal and continental climate makes summer pleasant and sunny. Summer tempeartures are bearable thanks to Lika highlands´ high altitude and trails are passing through forests of Kremen and Urljaj. During daytime the air can warm up rather high but after sunset it usually drops consiredably.
Spring and fall abound in natural colors and periods of very nice and bad weather interchange.
Photo 19. Late spring colors east of the summit
There is no weather station on Kremen. Closest towns with permament weather stations is Gospić, the largest town in Lika. Some permanent weather observations and measurements are also active in Plitvice Lakes National Park and Korenica, both in Lika region.
Accuweather (current weather data and forecasts for Bruvno, Mazin or Udbina)
8 Accuweather home page
WeatherOnline (including 10 day forecasts and current weather data):
8 WeatherOnline home page
The best local source for weather reports and forecasts is Croatian Hydrological ad Meteorological Institute (DHMZ):
Croatian Hydrological ad Meteorological Institute (DHMZ):
8 DHMZ home page – in English
8 Weather Forecasts – in English, including Gospić
8 DHMZ-actual weather conditions incl. snow conditions (also for Gospić)
Live Web Cams
The nearest live web cameras which can present you current weather conditions (esepcially snow conditions) in the area can be found on Hrvatski auto-klub (HAK) Croatian Drivers Association
. When you open this web-page search for one of two locations:
1. Tunel Sveti Rok - sjever
(Sveti Rok – north, tunnel entrance camera on A-1 Zagreb-Split-Dubrovnik Highway) 24 km air-distance from Kremen
2. Prometni pravci - Korenica INA
(INA Gas/Petrol Station in the town of Korenica) 36 km air-distance from Kremen
Attractions in the vicinity
The area around Kremen offers a wide variety of natural and traditional attractions like Lička Plješivica Nature park, Plitvička jezera (Plitvice lakes) National park, Paklenica National Park, Velebit Nature Park, Krka National Park, Una river canyon, Zrmanja and Krupa river Canyons, Cerovačke pećine (Cerovac caves), caves around the town of Slunj, traditional houses and mills of Rastoke close Slunj, are some of the best known.
þ Lika-Senj County (Ličko-senjska županija)
þ Zadar County Tourist Board (Zadarska županija) Tourism
þ Plitvice Lakes National Park
Photo 20. One of many Plitvice lakes
Photo 21. Cascades on Una river
(sightseeing, mountainering, wildlife watching)
Established in 1949, enlisted in UNESCO - World Heritage List: 1979. Main features: diverse forest communities cover more than 75 % of the park area; unique karst phenomenon-between the mountain ranges of Mala Kapela and Licka Pljesivica there is a series of 16 lakes arranged as cascades, separated by travertine barriers; karst phenomena - caves, sinking zones, pits, ice caves; preserved forests of beech and fir, relic forest communities; high biological diversity -1146 plant species (72 endemic, 22 protected), 150 birds; habitats of big predators - bear, wolf, lynx, wildcat Specially protected areas: special forest reserve - virgin forest Čorkova uvala; UNESCO´s list of World's natural heritage.
Plitvice Lakes National Park SP Page
þ Paklenica National Park
(alpinism, free-climbing, hiking-mountaineering)
Canyons of Velika and Mala Paklenica have plenty of geological, hydrological, karst, floristic and faunal characteristics; rich flora - about 800 species (40 endemic); diverse and rich fauna - especially important is the presence of the griffon vultures; rich cultural heritage - indigenous architecture, water mills, felting mill, archaeological locality Paklaric; most famous Croatian climbing area for climbers and alpinists.
þ Krka National Park
Preserved and insignificantly altered ecosystem; the area of 109 square kilometers along the Krka River; famous for its travertine waterfals and cascades, and the river canyon overall is a natural and karstic phenomenon.
þ Northern Velebit National Park
(hiking-mountaineering, wildlife-watching, speleology)
Numerous karst phenomena and caving objects - deep pits, karrens, sinkholes; preserved forest communities; high biological diversity, plenty of endemic species; landscape diversity - picturesque valleys, pastures, rocks, screes; remains of traditional architecture - old summer lodgings Specially protected areas: strict reserve Hajducki i Rozanski kukovi, special botanical reserves: Visibaba, Zavizan-Balinovac-Velika kosa with Velebit botanical garden.
þ Velebit Nature Park
Enlisted in UNESCO/MAB - Biosphere Reserve in 1978. Longest mountain of the Dinaric range - 145 km; karst phenomena - barren rocks of different shapes, canyons, valleys, caves and pits; hydrogeological phenomena - karst rivers with travertine barriers, underground flows which emerge in the sea as submarine springs; landscape diversity - alteration of barren limestone rocks with beech, fir and spruce forests; biological diversity - 2700 plant species, numerous endemic species of flora and fauna, particularly in the underground and waters Specially protected areas: 2 national parks: Paklenica and Sjeverni Velebit, protected landscape Zavratnica, geomorphologic nature monuments: Cerovacke pecine and Modric cave, palaeontological nature monument Velnicka glavica, special forest reserve Stirovaca - virgin forests of beech and fir.
þ Una river canyon
þ Zrmanja and Krupa river canyons
See Crorivers-homepage on Croatian Karst Rivers
þ Cerovačke pećine (Cerovac caves)
The cave system consisting of two main caves the Lower and the Upper cave, with total length of over 3 km; paleontological (the cave bear) and archeological (prehistorical pottery) finding places.
þ Laudonov gaj (Laudon’s grove)
In 1750 Habsburg field-marshal Laudon planted oak and pine trees in Krbavsko field next to the village of Bunić.
þ Kriva lisina and Debeli vrh
Within Mala Plješivica, protected remains of one of the last Croatian primeval forests. The area covered by the forest amounts to 122 hectares.
Photo 22. Physical map of Lička Plješivica massif
Photo 23. Topo map of Kremen