Reconstructions of the movements of continents bordering the Iapetus Ocean and Tornquist Seaduring the Caledonian Orogeny. (a) and (b) are road ‘views’ that are neccessary to encompass the great width of the ocean during the early stages of the orogeny. Note the separation of Avalonia from Gondwana during this time. (c), (d) and (e) show the later stages of the orogeny in more detail, with progresssive narrowing of the oceanic areas, convergence of the continents and ultimate continent–continent collisions and strike-slip re-alignment of terranes.
Stephenson, D., Bevins, R.E., Millward, D., Stone, P., Parsons, I., Highton, A.J. & Wadsworth, W.J., (2000), Caledonian Igneous Rocks of Great Britain, Geological Conservation Review Series, No. 17, pp 14.