Big leaf lupine grows on moist ground in meadows, open forests and along streams in the mountains of much of western North America. All parts of lupines are toxic, especially spring foliage, flowers, and fruits. Lupine consumption by pregnant females can cause birth defects. Cows and goats that eat lupines can pass toxins through their milk and cause deformities. Death from lupine poisoning is rare among humans but livestock that eat lupine in great quantities may die. Photo from Turnbow Wildlife Refuge near Spokane, Washington. June 1998
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