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Nera s Gorges Nera Gorges (Aninei Mountains)
NERA S GORGES Beusnita Falls (Aninei Mountains)
What we have identified as the Southwestern Carpathians consists of three separate mountain groups.
1) By the Danube River, in the historic province of Banat, sits the last segment of the Carpathian Arc. The Banat Mountains and the northernmost mountains of Eastern Serbia can be seen as parts of the same mountain group - a link between the Carpathian chain and the Balkan (Stara Planina) Mountains - split by the canyon of the Danube. In fact, there are three options for the SW end of the Carpathians: a) The gorges of the Danube, for which we have opted here, b) The Juzna (South) Morava and the Timok rivers in Serbia, c) The Timiş (Temes) and Mehadica rivers in Romania. Regardless of whereabouts the Carpathians end, the eastern boundary of the mountains of Banat runs straight north from the Iron Gate proper, along the tectonic fault line which determines the course of the Mehadica and Timiş rivers, between the towns of Orşova and Caranşebeş.
2) To the northeast of these mountains, northwest of the Retezat Mountains, lies the massif of Poiana Ruscă - for centuries heavily grazed, and more recently heavily mined for iron. Both the mountains of Banat and the Poiana Ruscă contain fairly low mountains (below 1500 m) and are often regarded as parts of the Southern Carpathians.
Bihor Mountains Bihor/Bihar, the highest range in the Apuseni Mountains
3) Finally, north of the Poiana Ruscă, across the valley of the Mureş (Maros) River, stands the largest and highest (above 1800 m) Carpathian "island" (some geological classifications exclude it from the Carpathians), bounded by the Pannonian Plain in the west and separated from the Carpathian Arc by the upland of Transylvania in the east. Romanian people call it Munţii Apuseni, which translates as the Western Mountains (before World War I, they were called the Island Mountains of Eastern Hungary, nowadays Hungarians refer to them as the Island Mountains of Transylvania). 
Truly Transylvania
Padiş/Pádis karst plateau
The Southwestern Carpathians are the lowest and least forested of the five major parts of the Carpathians we have depicted on this page, each in a different chapter. What makes these mountains fascinating is the fact that they embrace vast limestone areas, including the most spectacular karst land in all of the Carpathians: the Padiş/Pádis Plateau in the north of the Bihor/Bihar Mountains. As for the ancient crystalline core of the Apuseni, some evidence suggests that it differs from that of the Carpathian Basin and could have once been part of the Dinarides.
Vlădeasa Mountains
On the flanks of the Apuseni, besides limestone plateaus, post-Paleozoic lava (creating most of the Vlădeasa/Vlegyásza Mountains) and flysch are also present.
On the map below triangles indicate the highest peaks of particular ranges. If you hover the mouse over them, you will see the names of the ranges and peaks. Black pentagons indicate major towns (if available, links to airports open upon clicking). The tables below the map list the ranges in each group north to south, sorted by the dominant rock type, in the following format: mountain range - highest peak - elevation (in meters). Ranges composed almost exclusively of calcareous rocks (white triangles on the map) are marked green in the tables. A little more information about limestone areas is to be found below the tables. Ranges marked with an asterisk (*) in the tables boast spectacular limestone karst.
Munţii Plopişului / Şes (Măgura Mare, 918 m) Munţii Meseş (Măgura Priei, 996 m) Pădurea Craiului (Hodrâncuşa, 1027 m) Vlădeasa (Vlădeasa, 1836 m) Codru Moma (Pleşu, 1112 m) Munţii Bihor (Cucurbăta Mare, 1849 m) Padiş (Biserica Moţului, 1456 m) Munţii Gilău (Muntele Mare, 1826 m) Munţii Zarand (Drocea, 836 m) Munţii Metalliferi (Poieniţa, 1437 m) Munţii Trascău (Dâmbău, 1369 m) Poiana Ruscă (Padeş, 1374 m) Munţii Aninei (Leordis, 1160 m) Munţii Semenic (Semenic/Piatra Goznei, 1446 m) Munţii Locvei (Corhanul Mare, 735 m) Munţii Almăjului (Svinecea Mare, 1224 m) Timişoara /Temesvár/ (RO) Sibiu /Hermannstadt, Nagyszeben/ (RO) Târgu Mureş /Marosvásárhely/ (RO) Cluj-Napoca /Kolozsvár, Klausenburg/ (RO)
Hiker's Paradise
From Trascău to Gilău mts
Cosul Boului cave
Muntele Mare
Turnul Ascuţit (Éles-torony)
Trascău/Torockó Mountains
Aninei Mountains


Apuseni Mountains (Western Transylvania)
Northern group
Pădurea Craiului * Hodrâncuşa 1027
Plopişului / Şes Măgura Mare 918
Meseş Măgura Priei 996
Central group
Moma Pleşu 1112
Bihor * Cucurbăta Mare 1849
Vlădeasa Vlădeasa 1836
Gilău Muntele Mare *
Southern group
Zarand Drocea 836
Metaliferi Poieniţa 1437
Trascău * Dâmbău 1369
Bridge #4 areaTrascău/Torockó Mountains
Poiana Ruscă and Mountains of Banat
Poiana Ruscă Padeş 1374

Semenic Semenic / Piatra Goznei 1446
Anina (Aninei) * Leordis 1160
Locva (Locvei) Corhanul Mare 735
 Almăj Svinecea Mare 1224
The following limestone areas boast the most spectacular scenery: 
  • Pădurea Craiului / Királyerdö (King's Forest) with its numerous caves
  • Padiş/Pádis Plateau - famed for its undeground karst
  • Trascău/Torockó Mountains: Turzii/Tordai Gorge - a scenic canyon and a popular rock climbing area; Râmeţ/Remete Gorge popular with hikers; Piatra Secuiului/Székelykő - the historic Rock of the Szeklers
  • Anina Mountains and an adjacent swath of the Semenic Mountains: Nera Gorges-Beușnița National Park in the south, Semenic-Caraș Gorge National Park in the north, Bigăr Falls in the Miniș Valley 
Bohodei waterfall
Vlădeasa Mts
Inside the caldron
Székelykő from the Szentgyörgy castle
Rock of the Szeklers
Eminenciás-vízesés / Cascada Evantai
Craciunesti main  wall
Metaliferi Mts
Rock in Cheile Rameti
Râmeţ/Remete Gorge
Carpathians' SW end


The Southern Carpathians (also known as the Transylvanian Alps) extend from the Banat Mountains (see next chapter) in the west to Giuvala (Bran) Pass, or - according to a diverse vision - Predeal Pass and the Prahova Valley in the east, where the mountain system meets the Eastern Carpathians. If the latter endpoint were assumed, the Bucegi and Leaota mountains, which we have included in the Eastern Carpathians, would belong to the Southern Carpathians. If not, the easternmost mountain group in the Southern Carpathians is the Făgăraș Group, and the easternmost ranges are the Piatra Craiului and the Iezer-Păpușa.

The  Iezer-Papusa  mt.., the hihghest summit ( 2391 m), in the center Iezer-Papuşa, Făgăraș Group - winter
The Southern Carpathians differ from the Northwestern, Northeastern and Eastern Carpathians in that both flysch and volcanic belts are completely missing from them. These mountains are the most elevated, southern edge of the ancient Tisa-Dacia platform. They contain about a dozen ranges that exceed 2000 m in elevation, including eight ranges rising above 2200 m - more than the other parts of the Carpathian Mountains altogether. The bold alpine, or rather Tatra-like relief, is to be found in the Făgăraş and the Retezat, and also in the highest part of the Parâng. These three ranges top out above 2500 m. The Făgăraş is the second highest range in the Carpathians (and the highest in Romania), the highpoint of the Parâng is the second most prominent peak (2101 m of prominence), the Retezat is famous for its tarns. 
Panorama with a better weather
Făgăraş Mountains - summer
Still, many of the high ranges and ridges of the Southern Carpathians have pretty gentle, broad crests. They are usually formed of metamorphic schists and gneiss and some feature remnants of an old peneplain - best preserved and easily recognizable in the Godeanu Mountains - lifted high, deeply cut by the rivers and since time immemorial used as pastureland. These natural meadows have been extended by clearing the bushes of the mountain pine above the tree line, which usually has also been lowered; especially on the less rocky, warmer, southern slopes.
The eastern and central segment of the Căpăţânii Mountains Căpăţânii Mountains, Parâng Group - summer
Big tarn cirque
Big tarn cirque
Limestone karst is fabulously developed in the Mehedinţi range in the southwest, whereas at the east end of the Southern Carpathians stands the most spectacular limestone ridge in the Carpathian Mountains, the Piatra Craiului (Royal Rock), which offers plenty of climbing opportunities and shelters stunning wildlife.
Bucura cirque panorama Retezat Mountains, Retezat-Godeanu Group - mid-June
On the map below triangles indicate the highest peaks of particular ranges. If you hover the mouse over them, you will see the names of the ranges and peaks. Black pentagons indicate major towns (if available, links to airports open upon clicking). The table below the map lists the ranges of the Southern Carpathians, sorted by the dominant rock type, in the following format: mountain range - highest peak - elevation (in meters). Ranges composed almost exclusively of calcareous rocks (white triangles on the map) are marked green in the table. A little more information on limestone areas is to be found below the table.


Online maps


Paper maps


  • A 2012 guidebook by Gheorghe Ploaie
  • According to Gheorghe Ploaie's blog, a map and guidebook can be obtained at the Office of Vaideeni Commune.

The owner of this page happened to be given a map of the mountains at the foot of Funicelu summit. Thanks!

Red Tape


You must keep to the waymarked trails. Bivouacking is not permitted. You are not supposed to hike during the night. The trails above huts are closed for hikers from 1 November to 15 June.

Prostredný hrebeň under Ursa Major


You must be a member of a rock climbing club. Just before your climb, you should write it into the register kept in a nearby mountain hut/your hotel. (Make sure you sign it on return too!) During the approach you must stick to the traditionally used routes described in rock climbing guidebooks. Bivouacking on the wall is only allowed in an emergency. Except for winter, you must not do a route that is easier than UIAA grade III (approx. YDS grade 5.3) unless on the descent. The funny thing is that the last rule does not apply to those hiking/scrambling with a licensed guide whom they have paid €200-300 for looking after them.

Siroka Veza from Maly Ostry...
Široká veža from WSW - by dynercia

Mountain Conditions & Rescue

The best season to go is summer and often early autumn, the best month seems to be September providing it isn't rainy. In high season and at weekends expect crowds on the approach trails.

  • In Slovakia those who do not carry commercial insurance have to pay for any rescue services rendered by Mountain Rescue Service (HZS). Membership in Alpenverein sorts the problem out.
  • HZS phone number: 18 300
  • Mountain conditions, including avalanche danger level, on HZS site
  • Webcam at Chata pri Zelenom plese
  • Webcams in the Polish Tatras
  • Weather forecast for Starý Smokovec on AccuWeather
    Široká veža
    Photo by Gorzi

Other Information

Please check out the parent page.

Ruprechtický Špičák from NE
Ruprechtický Špičák from NE

Red Tape, Camping & Warnings

  • Disappearing trail
    Most of the Lower Tatra Mountains is protected as a national park (NAPANT).
  • You are supposed to stick to the waymarked trails.
  • Within the national park camping is only allowed in designated places, namely at Hiadeľské Pass, by Ďurková Hut, at Čertovica Pass and in the settlement of Magurka 'by 'Chata na Panskej lúke'.
  • In recent years there have been several bear attacks on people. Most resulted in serious injuries. In June 2021 a local man was killed by a bear outside the village of Liptovská Lúžna: Bears
  • In Slovakia those who do not carry commercial insurance have to pay for any rescue services rendered by Mountain Rescue Service (HZS).

When To Go

Mountains in the evening
January - by Tomek Lodowy
  • There will be crowds in summer (except September) and at weekends.
  • Winters can be harsh.
  • Bear in mind that bears are most dangerous during spring. I have never heard of any problems with bears on this route, but you should be bear aware.
  • The best time to go seems to be late summer or early autumn.
  • Weather forecast for Ustrzyki Górne at approx. 650m on AccuWeather
View from the summit of Mount Rozsypaniec
October - by Henryk

Key Statistics

Ranges ranked by the number of summits higher than 2500 m with at least 100 m of prominence (in brackets the part of the Carpathians the range lies in)

Rank 1 2 3 4 5
Range High Tatras (NW) Făgăraș (S) Retezat (S) Parâng (S) Bucegi (E)
How many 9 5 2 1 1


Gerlach from Poľský hrebeň
Gerlach (Gerlachovský štít)

Ranges ranked according to the prominence of their highpoint

Rank Range Highest summit Prominence (meters)
1 Tatras (NW) Gerlachovský štít  2355
2 Parâng (S) Parângul Mare 2101
3 Făgăraș (S) Moldoveanu 2046
4 Retezat (S) Peleaga 1760
5 Rodna (E) Pietrosul Rodnei 1572
6 Bihor (SW) Cucurbăta Mare 1483
Gorgany from Grofa

Ranges ranked by the number of summits with more than 500 m of prominence

Rank Range Number of summits
1 Gorgany (NE) 13
2-4 Low Tatras, Marmarosh Mountains (NE), Polonyna Krasna (NE) 3


routes table

Start point Via Approx. total elevation gain (m) Approx. distance (km) Approx. time of hike up (hr)
Ludrová Hučiaky 1100 10 4.5
Ludrová Úplazy 1200 9 4.5

Liptovská Lúžna 

Ráztocké sedlo 950 7 2.5
Železné Ráztocké sedlo 700 5 2
Partizánska Ľupča Malý Salatín 1250 15 6


Start point Via Approx. total elevation gain (m) Approx. distance (km) Approx. time of hike up 
Lúčky Široká dolina 1100 8 3 hrs 45 min


main ridge trail 280 4.3 1.5 hrs
Trangoška Štefanik Hut 900 6.3 2 hrs 45 min 
Čertovica main ridge trail 1050 11 4.5 hrs

W Carpathians

The Northwestern Carpathians are the widest and most complex part of the Carpathian mountain chain, stretching from the Danube River at Devín, east of Vienna (from the geologist’s perspective, the Carpathians extend a little beyond the Danube there, as the Hundsheimer/Hainburger Mountains at 480m, but we have decided to ignore such low hills on this page), to the valley of the Topľa River in the east of Slovakia. All three Carpathian lithologic belts – flysch, crystalline, and volcanic – are extensively developed here. It is also here that the the High Tatras (Gerlachovský štít, 2655 m) rise – the highest and most alpine in character mountain range in all of the Carpathians, which straddles the border between Slovakia and Poland.
High Tatras Vysoké Tatry (High Tatras) from Nízké Tatry (Low Tatras) - fall
Apart from the Tatras (which can be subdivided into the Western, High and Belianske Tatras), known in both Poland and Slovakia as Tatry, only the Low Tatras (Nízke Tatry) – a discrete mountain range that runs parallel to the Tatras between the valleys of the Váh and Hron rivers – exceed 2000 m in elevation. Despite there being plenty of crystalline ranges and massifs in the Northwestern Carpathians, the third highest mountain range in this part of the Carpathians stands inside the flysch belt, just north of the Tatras, and bears the name of High Beskid (Beskid Wysoki, more often called Beskid Żywiecki in Poland, after the town of Żywiec). Its highest massif tops out at 1725 m. The other three ranges that rise above timberline are the Little Fatra (Malá Fatra), the Great Fatra (Veľká Fatra) and the calcareous Chočské vrchy, all situated west of the Tatras or the Low Tatras. Like most of the other crystalline ranges in the Northwestern Carpathians, both the Fatras have vast areas formed of limestone and dolomite, within which some bold mountains stand. The most interesting of them is spectacular Veľký Rozsutec sitting at the north end of the Little Fatra.
High-Börzsöny panorama  Börzsöny - spring

In the southern chunk of the Northwestern Carpathians there are about a dozen hilly areas where volcanic rocks dominate. The highest of them, heavily wooded Pol'ana, reaches 1458 m and represents the remnants of a large stratovolcano. The volcanic belt of Northern Hungary crosses the Danube north of Budapest to extend further west, towards Lake Balaton, as the Transdanubian Hills, which are not regarded as part of the Carpathians except the Visegrád Mountains. 

On the map below triangles indicate the highest peaks of particular ranges. If you hover the mouse over them, you will see the names of the ranges and peaks. Black pentagons indicate major towns (if available, links to airports open upon clicking). The table below the map lists the ranges of the Northwestern Carpathians west to east, sorted by the dominant rock type, in the following format: mountain range - highest peak - elevation (in meters). Ranges composed almost exclusively of calcareous rocks (white triangles on the map) are marked green in the table. More information about limestone areas is to be found below the table.

White Carpathians (Veľká Javorina, 970 m) Javorníky (Veľký Javorník, 1071 m) Moravskoslezské Beskydy (Lysá hora, 1323 m) Beskid Śląski (Skrzyczne, 1257 m) Beskid Mały (Czupel, 933 m) High Beskid (Babia Góra, 1725 m) Oravská Magura (Minčol, 1394 m) Skorušinské vrchy & Pogórze Gubałowskie (Skorušina, 1314 m) Beskid Makowski (Lubomir, 904 m) Gorce (Turbacz, 1310 m) Beskid Wyspowy (Mogielica, 1170 m) Beskid Sądecki (Radziejowa, 1262 m) Spišská Magura (Repisko, 1259 m) Levočské vrchy (Čierna hora, 1289 m) Čergov (Minčol, 1157 m) Little Carpathians (Záruby, 768 m) Inovec (Inovec, 1042 m) Strážovské vrchy (Strážov, 1213 m) Little Fatra (Veľký Kriváň, 1709 m) Western Tatras (Bystrá, 2248 m) High Tatras (Gerlachovský, 2655 m) Branisko (Smrekovica, 12000 m) Tribeč (Veľký Tribeč, 829 m) Greater Fatra (Ostredok, 1592 m) Low Tatras (Ďumbier, 2043 m) Veporské vrchy (Fabova hoľa, 1438 m) Stolické vrchy (Stolica, 1476) Volovské vrchy (Volovec, 1284) Vtáčnik (Vtáčnik, 1345 m) Kremnické vrchy (Flochová, 1317 m) Štiavnické vrchy (Sitno, 1009 m) Javorie-Ostrôžky (Lažtek, 1044 m) Poľana (Poľana, 1458 m) Börzsöny (Csóványos, 938 m) Visegrádi-hegység (Dobogókő, 700 m) Mátra (Kékes, 1014 m) Karancs-Medves (Karancs, 727 m) Zempléni-hegység (Nagy-Milic, 894 m) Slanské vrchy (Šimonka, 1092 m) Súľovské skaly (Veľký Manín, 891 m) Chočské vrchy (Veľký Choč, 1611 m) Belianské Tatry (Havran, 2152 m) Pieniny (Trzy Korony, 982 m) Muránska planina (Kľak, 1409 m) Slovenský raj (Ondrejisko, 1270 m) Gömör-Torna karst (Matesova skala, 925 m) Bükk (Istállós-kő, 959 m) Bratislava (SK) Budapest (HU) Košice (SK) Poprad (SK) Kraków (PL)
Gerlach seen from Rysy ridge
High Tatras - spring
Real skyscrapers
High Tatras - summer
Nizke Tatry - Dumbier summit
Low Tatras - winter
View of Rozsutec from Stefanowa
Little Fatra - summer


Flysch belt Crystalline belt Volcanic belt
Northern ranges (Western Beskids)
Moravskoslezské Beskydy Lysá hora 1323
Beskid Śląski Skrzyczne 1257
High Beskid Babia Góra 1725
Gorce Turbacz 1310
Beskid Sądecki Radziejowa 1262
Beskid Mały Czupel 933
Beskid Makowski Lubomir 904
Beskid Wyspowy Mogielica 1170
Western ranges
White Carpathians Veľká Javorina 970
Javorníky Mts. Veľký Javorník 1071
Inner ranges
Oravská Magura Minčol 1394
Skorušinské vrchy &Pogórze Gubałowskie Skorušina 1314
Spišská Magura Repisko 1259
Levočské vrchy Čierna hora 1289
Čergov Minčol 1157

The High Beskid, which straddles the Poland-Slovakia border, is called Beskid Żywiecki in Poland and Kysucké a Oravské Beskydy in Slovakia.
Western ranges
Little Carpathians Záruby 768
Inovec Mts. Inovec 1042
Strážovské vrchy Strážov 1213
Tribeč Veľký Tribeč 829
Northern ranges
Central ranges
Southeastern ranges
Veporské vrchy Fabova hoľa 1438
Stolické vrchy Stolica 1476
Volovské vrchy Volovec 1284
Branisko Smrekovica 1200

The Western Tatras (mostly metamorphic rocks and limestone) and the High Tatras (granite) are in fact one range. The SE ranges except Branisko are often grouped together as Slovenské rudohorie or Spišsko-gemerské rudohorie (Slovak), i.e. the Spiš-Gemer Ore Mountains.
Northern (Slovakian) massifs
Vtáčnik Vtáčnik 1345
Štiavnické vrchy Sitno 1009
Kremnické vrchy Flochová 1317
Javorie-Ostrôžky Lažtek 1044
Poľana Poľana 1458
Southern (Hungarian) massifs
Börzsöny Csóványos 938
Visegrádi-hegység Dobogókő 700
Karancs-Medves Karancs 727
Mátra Kékes-tető 1014
Eastern rim
Slanské vrchy Šimonka 1092
Zempléni-hegység Nagy-Milic 894

The Slanské and Zemplén Mountains actually make up a single range, cut in half by the border between Slovakia and Hungary - hence the two names. The whole range is also sometimes referred to as the Eperjes-Tokaj Mountains, after the two towns at opposite ends of the range (the Slovak name of Eperjes is Prešov). However, the traditional name of the range was the Sátor (meaning Tent) Mountains, after the shape of its mountains.
Hrubá Kopa-2166 mWestern Tatras
Above Kezmarska valley
High Tatras
Zdiarska Vidla and HavranBelianske Tatras
Babia Gora 1725mHigh Beskid
The highest segment of Velká FatraGreat Fatra
Vadálló kövekVisegrád Mountains
The most spectacular limestone areas in the north:  
  • Belianske Tatry (Havran, 2152 m) - named after the town of Spišská Belá, the distinct limestone-and-dolomite ridge adjoining the High Tatras. The Belá Tatras along with the High Tatras are sometimes called the Eastern Tatras
    Rock window
    Low Tatras
  • the north of the Western Tatras, especially their Polish part with the massifs of Czerwone Wierchy and Giewont, and the Sivý Vrch Group at the west end of the Tatras (Slovakia)
  • Veľký Rozsutec and its vicinity in the Little Fatra
  • Pieniny (Wysoka/Vysoké Skalky, 1052 m) - the most outstanding group of the limestone rocks scattered along the inner rim of the flysch belt (nice crags also stick out of flysch within the Orava-Podhale Basin and in the White (Bílé/Biele) Carpathians), right opposite the outer edge of the crystalline belt. The Pieniny are cut in half by the winding Dunajec River, which has created a scenic gorge through which one can travel on a locally made raft, on a bike or on foot
  • Chočské vrchy (Veľký Choč, 1611 m) - a link between the Western Tatras and the two Fatras
  • Súľovské vrchy(Veľký Manín, 891 m) - the northern half of the Strážovské vrchy, especially its northernmost part called Súľovské skaly - plenty of rock towers made up of limestone conglomerate
  • the massifs of Ohnište, Krakova hoľa and Salatín in the north of the Low Tatras
  • Bralná Fatra in the southwest, Šípska Fatra in the north and some other parts of the Great Fatra
Dolina Małej Łąki
Polish W Tatras
Veľký Choč (1611 m)
Veľký Choč
Cukorová Homolá (Cukorsüveg) Slovak Karst
Súľovský hradSúľovské skaly
Dunajec river gorgePieniny
Vršatec rocksWhite Carpathians

Limestone plateaus and canyon lands on the peripheries of the Slovenské rudohorie:  

Slovensky raj, Slovakia Slovak Paradise 
  • Spišsko-gemerský kras ('kras' means karst in Slavonic languages) - consists of two distinct parts: Muránska planina (Kľak, 1409 m) and Slovak Paradise / Slovenský raj (Ondrejisko, 1270 m). Slovak Paradise is famous for its trails which lead one up narrow canyons and waterfalls with the assistance of metal or wooden ladders, bridges, steps and chains. (Such trails have also been built in other places in the Northwestern Carpathians, but nowhere is their network so vast.)
  • Gömör-Torna karst - cut in half by the political border between Slovakia and Hungary: Slovak karst (Matesova skala, 925 m) in the north (including Zadielská Dolina) and Aggtelek karst (Fertős-tető, 604 m) in the south.
  • Bükk (Istállós-kő - 959 m) - within the Hungarian volcanic belt.
Belian Tatras Belianske Tatry (Belá Tatras) - fall


VIDEO by LukZem


VIDEO by LukZem

or older version

Hăşmaş Mountains