are added into the total mileage on topo maps.
When these trails are constructed, they must
meet a set of engineering standards, as far as steepness of grade and following the contours of the land. If a trail went 'straight up' a mountain, it would soon be overcome by the erosive forces of running water.
I learned all this from a 'trail crew leader'
from Pennsylvania, by the way.
Larry of AZ