Very impressed that you made it all the way to Sphinx on Day 1 -- late start, over three summits, and high winds and low temps. Pitching your tent on ice in the dark must have been interesting.
Equally impressed you made it down the Sphinx and out the Great Gulf in a day. That's a steep trail and a long slog out to the road, especially with having to break trail.
Sounds like you made all the right decisions, including the decision to bail. Even if possible, pushing on to Washington (and beyond) would have been dangerous.
I would call that trip a success. Great job.