The Aparados da Serra National Park is placed in the boundary of the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina,coordinates: S 29º00' and 29º15' and W 50º00' and 50º15'.The park was created on December 17,1959.
He possesses an area of 102,5 km² with perimeter of 63km and he shelters the Canyon of Itaimbezinho,the most visited of this area,with about 5,8 km of extension and extremely vertical faces, with up to 720 meters of depth, through which he rushes the river Perdizes in a cascade of about 200 meters.
It is located in the municipal districts of Cambará do Sul in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and Praia Grande in the state of Santa Catarina.
The relief south catarinense is accentuated with mountains and you are worth deep, that cut out the border of the plateau. The side rio-grandense it is characterized by soft coxilhas and you are worth shallow. Without transition, the soft undulations give place to vertical faces and basaltic rocks.
With a medium altitude of 950 meters,in the clear days Atlantic ocean can be spied from the borders of the canyons,as well as several close cities of the coast,as Praia Grande(SC) and Torres(RS).
Formed starting from intense activities volcanic happened there are millions of years,successive lava hemorrhages came to originate the Planalto Sulbrasileiro,covered by clean fields,forests of araucarias and countless East of crystalline rivers.To the east,this immense plateau is interrupted all of a sudden by vertical abysses that they take to the coastal area,then originating the name of Aparados da Serra.
In some points,current of collapses,natural flaws of the rock and erosion processes,are grandiose canyons,among the ones which the more acquaintances: Churriado, Malacara and Fortaleza.
The annual medium temperatures are among 18 to 20°C,with maximum from 34 to 36° C and low from -8 to -4°C. The pluviosidade is between 1.500 and 2.000mm annual.
They coexist in the area the Forest of Araucaria,fields and the Atlantic Pluvial Forest,the well the the transition areas among them. In the Forest of Araucaria he stands out:the pine tree-pity-paraná,the aroeira,the oak, the caúna and the pine tree-angry.In fields the grassy ones prevail.In the Atlantic Cope Forest they plows several species the: the maria-mole and the cangerana.
The interior of the canyons,that without any transition penetrate the plateau tearing the altitude fields,covered of pluvial tropical forest of perennial leaves,the one which originally occupied the whole hillside of Serra Geral.
Their sharp and vertical hillsides of basalt present a coloration of resultants tones of the liquens and of the vegetation of herbs and small bushes that alter with the nude rock. Already in the border of the canyons, he is the forest altitude nebular,growing on humid soil, receiving that name for finding at place where is frequent the formation of denominated thick fog of "breeze", that rise of the area of the coastal plain, creating conditions of high humidity.
Also meets in this adapts humid and rocky the Gunnera manicata,vegetable species with enormous leaves, of up to 1,5 meter of diameter and that, besides Aparados da Serra it is found at the Andean forests,especially to the south of Chile. Also characteristic of the area is to flower-symbol of Rio Grande do Sul: the "brinco de princesa(princess's earring)".
The local wild fauna is rich and constituted by rare species and that few know exist in Brazil, as the lobo-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus),the suçuarana or lion-bay or puma(Felis concolor),the graxaim-bush and the deer-rural(Ozotocerus bezoarticus),besides foxes,skunks,armadillos and bugio monkeys.Among the birds we found to crow-blue(Cyanocorax caeruleus),the parrot-charão,parakeets,partridges,quails and ducks,besides the typical want-want(Vanellus chilensis),bird-symbol of the pampa gaucho.The hawk-duck(Spizaetus tirannus)and the eagle-gray(Harpyhaliaetus coronatus) can be eventually sighted in areas of difficult access and one find threatened of extinction.They also meet poisonous snakes.
The month of January is the hottest, with averages among 20 to 22° C; June and July are the coldest months, with the temperature reaching less the 0°C. In function of this temperature variation, the visitor can choose the best time to know the park. In function of the mountain climate the conditions of the time can change quickly in any time of the year, being in the middle of summer common inferior temperatures to 10ºC.
CPRM - Geological Service of Brazil