Pardarchirus marmoratus

Moses soleMózes lepényhala (26 cm)
Pardachirus marmoratus, also known as the finless sole or the Red Sea Moses sole is a small fish from the Red Sea that secretes an ichthyotoxic milky substance from the base of its dorsal and anal fins. This secretion contains pardaxin, a lipophillic peptide that causes severe plasma membrane disruption resulting in cell leakage. The pardaxin containing secretion is used as a defensive mechanism against predators including sharks. Pardaxin is irritating to predator fish, particularly affecting the sensitive gills. Inhabits shallow sandy areas near reefs, 1 to 15 m. Common, but usually completely buried except for eyes and nostrils.
Range: Red Sea and Arabian Gulf to Sri Lanka, south to S. Africa.


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