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Construction page

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Location: Hungary, Europe

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Created/Edited: Jun 3, 2009 / May 8, 2016

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This is my backyard page for pre-publishment stage works. In other words, PERMANENTLY UNDER CONSTRUCTION!!! :)
Please do not vote on it.

Zemplén Mountains
Zemplén Mountains

High Tatras

Vysoka, Rysy and Niznie Rysy - High Tatras

Biography of Dávid Frölich with his experiences in the High Tatras at the bottom of p176 and several other interesting non mountain-related things...

A Magas-Tátra feltárása

Zamkovského chata

Salvamont info

calimans 4

General emergency number: 112
National dispatcher: 0-SALVAMONT (0725-826668)

Salvamont Bihor | salvamontbihor(at)yahoo.com | 0359-436022
Salvamont Mureş | salvamont(at)cjmures.ro | 0729-988844
Salvamont Gheorgheni | 0724-212586
Salvamont Sibiu

A list - not known how up-to-date



Karpaty - Munţii Carpaţi - Kárpátok - Карпати - Karpaten

The Carpathians and their neighborsCarpathians in center - the Big Five - subregions we have identified. Neighbors: Alps to the West, Dinarides (SW – across Great Hungarian Plain), Balkan Mountains (S), Sudetes (NW).

Rhododendron kotschyi
Rhododendron kotschyi
- token flower of E&S Carpathians

The Carpathian Mountains constitute one of Europe's main mountain systems, whose characteristic arc spans some 1,500 km across, separating the Carpathian Basin from the vast lowlands of Eastern Europe. At both ends, it is cut off from the neighboring mountains – the Alps in the west, and the Stara Planina/Balkan Mountains in the south – by the Danube River, although in geologic terms the Carpathians extend a bit beyond the Danube (for further discussion please see the SW chapter). The Carpathians run across the political borders between half a dozen countries: the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Ukraine and Romania.

Bearing in mind the sheer size of the Carpathian mountains, we are not going to provide much information about their particular ranges. Our objective is to give an overview - detailed information is expected of the child pages. The relevant SP pages (varying widely in quality) have been attached, the most important ranges that do not have an SP page yet have been highlighted in bold print in the tables. With this page, we would like to encourage fellow SP'ers to continue working on the old as well as submitting new SP pages about any of the countless interesting places to be found in our beloved Carpathian Mountains.

Geological map of the Carpathians
Geological map of Carpathians and Carpathian Basin - 1922

Geology and Physiography

The Carpathians presented here have been split into five groups: the Northwestern, Northeastern, Eastern (Northeastern and Eastern Carpathians are usually classified as one region named the East Carpathians), Southern and Southwestern Carpathians. This breakdown is generally based on the works of Hungarian geologists and geographers, and differs markedly from the physiographic divisions of the Carpathians usually drawn, for example, in Poland.   

The Carpathians are typically composed of three lithologic belts: the outer flysch belt (of relatively hard sandstone and soft shale), which can be broad but is rather low except the Chornohora (the apex of the Northeastern Carpathians, which tops out at 2,061 m); the central crystalline (i.e. metamorphic/granitoid) belt, which contains nearly all of the highest ranges (the Tatras in the north and four ranges in the south exceed 2,500 m in elevation); and the inner volcanic belt (rather low, like the flysch belt, except the Călimani Mountains, which rise above 2,100 m). This pattern is best displayed in the Northwestern Carpathians, and also in the Eastern Carpathians. The crystalline chain is very poorly exposed in the relatively low Northeastern Carpathians (only several crystalline massifs of the Marmarosh Mountains break through the sedimentary cover). Also, the make-up of the Southern Carpathians, which are almost exclusively composed of crystalline blocks, is different.
Obidza Waterfall
Flysch belt binds Carpathians (Beskid Sądecki Mountains)

Within the Carpathians, the eastern sibling of the Alps, there are many blocks whose rocks were (trans-)formed by orogenic cycles older than the Alpine orogeny. Some of those blocks, e.g. the Rodnei Mountains constitute well-preserved pre-Mesozoic orogens, i.e. mountains last folded during the Hercynian (Variscan) or older cycles. Generally, what is now metamorphic rocks used to be pre-Mesozoic sediments (e.g. flysch or limestone) which were altered - mostly through contact with magma – in the late Paleozoic. The metamorphic rocks (usually gneiss and schists) along with the granitoid rocks (magma that has set) form the so-called crystalline cores of numerous ranges on the inner side of the flysch belt. These crystalline blocks are – to varying extent – covered by Mesozoic limestone, especially on the flanks, since prolonged erosion has usually removed the limestone from the central part of the range.
View to the west from Gărgalău saddle
Ancient orogen of Rodnei Mountains

However, regardless of how old the rocks are, the geomorphology of the Carpathians was virtually determined by the Alpine (Tertiary) mountain-building cycle, which:
1) folded vast areas of limestone and flysch deposited in the post-Paleozoic seas that covered most of what is now the Carpathians
2) uplifted a number of old, crystalline blocks along fault lines (cracks in the Earth's crust)
3) towards the end of the Tertiary, was completed with eruptions of lava inside the Carpathian arc

In contrast to the Alps, limestone nappes (i.e. huge folds) are neither well developed nor well preserved. In the Carpathians, it is flysch which plays their part. Limestone (or more precisely calcareous rocks - limestone and dolomite - white triangles on our maps) occurs mainly on the sides of the crystalline massifs. Limestone 'splinters' can also be found immersed in the flysch. But like elsewhere the outcrops of calcareous rocks, especially mid-Mesozoic (Jurassic), often boast precipitous bluffs and crags, narrow gorges and caves.

At present, there aren't any glaciers left in the Carpathians, although the highest ranges did undergo intensive glacial activity in the Ice Age. As a result, their relief is bold and they are dotted with cirques and blue tarns, which makes for spectacular scenery. (A virtual NW to E to S to SW Carpathian traverse above the tree line is possible on SP by clicking here.)

Trzy Korony ...Three limestone crowns
Calm before the stormGranite and tarns
Călimani s rimRemnants of volcanoes

In the following chapters, we will aim to list all particular ranges of each unit of the Carpathian Big Five in a separate table, split into columns according to the dominant rock type. Below each table, you will find a list of the most attractive limestone areas.

Babel of Toponyms

On the ridge
Romanian shepherds in Făgăraş Mountains

The Carpathians have always been inhabited by a handful of peoples. In recent centuries, among those nations are the Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Ukrainians, Romanians, Hungarians and Germans ('Saxons'). Hence, most of the Carpathian ranges and sub-ranges have names in several languages. Since including all the names in each of the languages would make the tables too crowded, we have decided to normally stick to the name in the language of the country whose territory a particular area is part of nowadays (most of the Carpathians lies in Slovakia, Ukraine and Romania today), with some exceptions, e.g. when an English name is commonly used or when the translation brings out the meaning, and occasionally when local ethnic proportions justify it.

However, we believe that it would be appropriate to list all the different names on the area and mountain pages. A dictionary of toponyms has been initiated for this purpose. Also, a little Carpathian Picture Dictionary, which lists about 150 words in eight languages, is available on SP.

Wildlife and Wilderness

the bearBrown bear sanctuary
Per 100 sq km of WoodlandRomaniaSlovakiaSlovenia(top non-Carpathian)
7 (3.5?)
6 to 5
4 to 3

The Carpathians cannot compete with the Alps in elevation, but they are one of the few remaining areas in Europe that are so rich in wildlife. Carpathian wilderness, like almost elsewhere in Europe, is hardly land intact by humans – in fact, it is mostly found in the areas that has been rewilded over the last century or several decades. For example, the brown bear population in the Tatras - the highest Carpathian mountain range, in which the custom of hiking and mountaineering dates back to the 16th century and which is packed with visitors in summertime - has grown over twenty times since the end of World War II. Please take a look here.

In the remote corners of the Southern or Northeastern Carpathians, you can easily find solitude and walk all day without meeting anybody, but this is also possible in the more touristy Northwestern Carpathians provided that you keep away from honeypots. Fortunately, a number of the most attractive places within the Carpathians have not become honeypots yet. Let us hope they will remain wild forever.  

Wolf filmed by LukZem
Bear filmed in Hagymás/Hăşmaş Mts

The Carpathians are home to various endangered and endemic species of plants and animals, including Europe's second largest (after Russia) brown bear population, especially strong in the southeast. According to officials, there are five to six thousand brown bears in Romania although many ecologists claim that half of the bears have been shot down over the past two decades. If you are seeking an adventure package which encompasses crossing the bear country, the Carpathians by all means have it on offer. Check out the following link, full of information on the Carpathian bear, including detailed safety advice. Information on a range of animal species that inhabit the Carpathians can be studied on this SP page.

Chamois familyCarpathian chamois
MarmotHigh Tatra marmot
the flower 3Pink: Dianthus callizonus
Fire Salamander of Devil s RockFire salamander
Black Stork of the DunajecBlack stork
Rosalia longicorn (<i>Rosalia alpina</i>)Rosalia longicorn

Northwestern Carpathians

The Northwestern Carpathians are the widest and most complex part of the Carpathian mountain chain, stretching from the Danube River at Devín, east of Vienna (from the geologist’s perspective, the Carpathians extend a little beyond the Danube there, as the Hundsheimer/Hainburger Mountains at 480m, but we have decided to ignore such low hills on this page), to the valley of the Topľa River in the east of Slovakia. All three Carpathian lithologic belts – flysch, crystalline, and volcanic – are extensively developed here. It is also here that the the High Tatras (Gerlachovský štít, 2655 m) rise – the highest and most alpine in character mountain range in all of the Carpathians, which straddles the border between Slovakia and Poland.

High Tatras
Vysoké Tatry /High Tatras/ from Nízké Tatry /Low Tatras/ - fall

Apart from the Tatras (which can be subdivided into the Western, High and Belianske Tatras), known in both Poland and Slovakia as Tatry, only the Low Tatras (Nízke Tatry) – a discrete mountain range that runs parallel to the Tatras between the valleys of the Váh and Hron rivers – exceed 2000 m in elevation. Despite there being plenty of crystalline ranges and massifs in the Northwestern Carpathians, the third highest mountain range in this part of the Carpathians stands inside the flysch belt, just north of the Tatras, and bears the name of High Beskid (Beskid Wysoki, more often called Beskid Żywiecki in Poland, after the town of Żywiec). Its highest massif tops out at 1725 m. The other three ranges that rise above timberline are the Little Fatra (Malá Fatra), the Great Fatra (Veľká Fatra) and the calcareous Chočské vrchy, all situated west of the Tatras or the Low Tatras. Like most of the other crystalline ranges in the Northwestern Carpathians, both the Fatras have vast areas formed of limestone and dolomite, within which some bold mountains stand. The most interesting of them is spectacular Veľký Rozsutec sitting at the north end of the Little Fatra.

High-Börzsöny panorama
 Börzsöny - spring

In the southern chunk of the Northwestern Carpathians there are about a dozen hilly areas where volcanic rocks dominate. The highest of them, heavily wooded Pol'ana, reaches 1458 m and represents the remnants of a large stratovolcano. The volcanic belt of Northern Hungary crosses the Danube north of Budapest to extend further west, towards Lake Balaton, as the Transdanubian Hills, which are not regarded as part of the Carpathians except the Visegrád Mountains.

The table below lists the ranges of the Northwestern Carpathians from west to east, sorted by the dominant rock type, in the following format: mountain range - highest peak - elevation (in meters). Information about the limestone areas is to be found below the map and the following table.

Triangles indicate the highest peaks of particular ranges (hover the mouse over them to see the names of the ranges and peaks). Black pentagons indicate major towns with airports (click to open links).
White Carpathians (Veľká Javorina, 970 m)Javorníky (Veľký Javorník, 1071 m)Moravskoslezské Beskydy (Lysá hora, 1323 m)Beskid Śląski (Skrzyczne, 1257 m)Beskid Mały (Czupel, 933 m)High Beskid (Babia Góra, 1725 m)Oravská Magura (Minčol, 1394 m)Skorušinské vrchy & Pogórze Gubałowskie (Skorušina, 1314 m)Beskid Makowski (Lubomir, 904 m)Gorce (Turbacz, 1310 m)Beskid Wyspowy (Mogielica, 1170 m)Beskid Sądecki (Radziejowa, 1262 m)Spišská Magura (Repisko, 1259 m)Levočské vrchy (Čierna hora, 1289 m)Čergov (Minčol, 1157 m)Little Carpathians (Záruby, 768 m)Inovec (Inovec, 1042 m)Strážovské vrchy (Strážov, 1213 m)Little Fatra (Veľký Kriváň, 1709 m)Western Tatras (Bystrá, 2248 m)High Tatras (Gerlachovský, 2655 m)Branisko (Smrekovica, 12000 m)Tribeč (Veľký Tribeč, 829 m)Greater Fatra (Ostredok, 1592 m)Low Tatras (Ďumbier, 2043 m)Veporské vrchy (Fabova hoľa, 1438 m)Stolické vrchy (Stolica, 1476)Volovské vrchy (Volovec, 1284)Vtáčnik (Vtáčnik, 1345 m)Kremnické vrchy (Flochová, 1317 m)Štiavnické vrchy (Sitno, 1009 m)Javorie-Ostrôžky (Lažtek, 1044 m)Poľana (Poľana, 1458 m)Börzsöny (Csóványos, 938 m)Visegrádi-hegység (Dobogókő, 700 m)Mátra (Kékes, 1014 m)Karancs-Medves (Karancs, 727 m)Zempléni-hegység (Nagy-Milic, 894 m)Slanské vrchy (Šimonka, 1092 m)Súľovské skaly (Veľký Manín, 891 m)Chočské vrchy (Veľký Choč, 1611 m)Belianské Tatry (Havran, 2152 m)Pieniny (Trzy Korony, 982 m)Muránska planina (Kľak, 1409 m)Slovenský raj (Ondrejisko, 1270 m)Gömör-Torna karst (Matesova skala, 925 m)Bükk (Istállós-kő, 959 m)Bratislava (SK)Budapest (HU)Košice (SK)Poprad (SK)Kraków (PL)
Real skyscrapersHigh Tatras - summer
Nizke Tatry - Dumbier summitLow Tatras - winter
View of Rozsutec from StefanowaLittle Fatra - summer

Flysch beltCrystalline beltVolcanic belt
Northern ranges (Western Beskids)
Moravskoslezské BeskydyLysá hora1323
Beskid ŚląskiSkrzyczne1257
High BeskidBabia Góra1725
Beskid SądeckiRadziejowa1262
Beskid MałyCzupel933
Beskid MakowskiLubomir904
Beskid WyspowyMogielica1170
Western ranges
White CarpathiansVeľká Javorina970
Javorníky Mts.Veľký Javorník1071
Inner ranges
Oravská MaguraMinčol1394
Skorušinské vrchy &Pogórze GubałowskieSkorušina1314
Spišská MaguraRepisko1259
Levočské vrchyČierna hora1289

The High Beskid Mountains, which straddle the Poland-Slovakia border, are called Beskid Żywiecki in Poland and Kysucké a Oravské Beskydy in Slovakia.
Western ranges
Little CarpathiansZáruby768
Inovec Mts.Inovec1042
Strážovské vrchyStrážov1213
TribečVeľký Tribeč829
Northern ranges
Little FatraVeľký Kriváň1709
Western TatrasBystrá2248
High TatrasGerlachovský2655
Central ranges
Great FatraOstredok1596
Low TatrasĎumbier2043
Southeastern ranges
Veporské vrchyFabova hoľa1438
Stolické vrchyStolica1476
Volovské vrchyVolovec1284

The Western Tatras (mostly metamorphic rocks and limestone) and the High Tatras (granite) are in fact one range.The SE ranges except Branisko are often grouped together as Slovenské rudohorie or Spišsko-gemerské rudohorie (Slovak / Spiš-Gemer Ore Mountains)
Northern (Slovakian) massifs
Štiavnické vrchySitno1009
Kremnické vrchyFlochová1317
Southern (Hungarian) massifs
Eastern rim
Slanské vrchyŠimonka1092

Slanské and Zemplén Mountains actually make up a single range, cut in half by the political border between Slovakia and Hungary - hence the two names. The whole range is also sometimes referred to as the Eperjes-Tokaj Mountains, after the two towns at opposite ends of the range (the Slovak name of Eperjes is Prešov). However, the traditional name of the range was Sátor (Tent) Mountains, after the shape of its mountains.

Hrubá Kopa-2166 mWestern Tatras  
Gerlach seen from Rysy ridgeHigh Tatras 
Zdiarska Vidla and HavranBelianske Tatry
Babia Gora 1725mHigh Beskid
The highest segment of Velká FatraGreat Fatra
Vadálló kövekVisegrád Mountains

The most distinct limestone blocks in the north:

  • Belianske Tatry (Havran, 2152 m) - the distinct limestone/dolomite ridge adjoining the High Tatras, along with which it's often classified as the Eastern Tatras
  • Pieniny (Wysoka, 1052 m) - the most outstanding group of the limestone rocks scattered along the inner rim of the flysch belt (nice crags also stick out of flysch within the Orava-Podhale basin and in the White Carpathians), right opposite the outer edge of the crystalline belt. The Pieniny are cut in half by the winding Dunajec River, which has created a scenic gorge through which one can travel on a locally made raft, on a bike or on foot.
  • Chočské vrchy (Veľký Choč, 1611 m) - a link between the Western Tatras and the two Fatras
  • Súľovské skaly (Veľký Manín, 891 m) - plenty of rock towers made of limestone conglomerate, at the northern end of the Strážovské vrchy

Súľovský hradSúľov, Strážovské vrchy
View from Velky Choc summit....Veľký Choč
Dunajec river gorgeDunajec Gorge, Pieniny
KršlenicaLittle Carpathians 
Cukorová Homolá (Cukorsüveg) Slovak Karst
Vršatec rocksVršatec, White Carpathians 

Limestone plateaus and canyon lands on the peripheries of the Slovenské rudohorie:
Slovensky raj, Slovakia
Slovak Paradise 

  • Spišsko-gemerský kras - consists of two distinct parts: Muránska planina (Kľak, 1409 m) and Slovak Paradise (Slovenský raj) (Ondrejisko, 1270 m). Slovak Paradise is famous for its trails which lead one up narrow canyons and waterfalls with the assistance of metal or wooden ladders, bridges, steps and chains. (Such trails have also been built in other places in the Northwestern Carpathians, but nowhere is their network so vast.)
  • Gömör-Torna karst - cut in half by the political border between Slovakia and Hungary: Slovak karst (Matesova skala, 925 m) in the north - please see Zadielská Dolina and Aggtelek karst (Fertős-tető, 604 m) in the south.
  • Bükk (Istállós-kő - 959 m) - within the Hungarian volcanic belt.

Belian Tatras
Belianske Tatry


Gendarmes of Retezat
from Tău Porţii
Bucura valley
from Viorica lake
Hanging lake
Agătat lake and Poarta Bucurei ridge
Slaveiului ridge
Slaveiului ridge

First of all, let's mention that no marked trail leads to the summit of Judele (so, if you take the NP rules very strictly, it is not allowed to climb it). However, one of the marked trails crosses the Judele saddle, which is so near to the peak that temptation is hard to resist if you are not afraid of a little scrambling. The saddle can be approached in four possible ways:

1) Bucura Lake – Tăul Porţii - Ăgatat Lake – Şaua Judele

Difficulty: difficult
Time: 1.5 - 2 h
Level rising: + 400 m
Marking: blue stripe -> yellow stripe -> red dot

2) Bucura Lake – Ana Lake - Viorica Lake - Florica Lake - Ăgatat Lake – Şaua Judele

Difficulty: difficult
Time: 1 - 1.5 h
Level rising: + 400 m
Marking: red dot

Routes #1 and #2 merge by the well-hidden Ăgatat Lake, situated just below Turnu Porţii. From here a steep ascent follows up to Judele saddle - this part of the route is usually covered with snow until summer, and can be dangerous to tackle unprepared in such conditions.

3) Zănoaga Lake - Şaua Judele

Difficulty: moderate

Time: 1 - 1.5 h
Level rising: + ... m
Marking: red dot

4) Bucura Lake – “La Pintenul Slăveiului” – Creasta Slăveiului (Slaveiului ridge) – Şaua Judele

Difficulty: difficult

Time: 2 - 3 h
Level rising: + 550 m
Marking: blue cross, yellow dot, red triangle -> stone marking

Route #4 has unmarked parts, so the hiker must be prepared for some route finding. But this probably makes it even more interesting.

Judele peak
Judele from Judele saddle

Once you have reached the Judele saddle, take the obvious ridge (unmarked) towards the peak. The first section is wide and comfortable. When you reach the base of the summit, it gets more exposed (see the photo on the left). The safest route is a path on the western side of the ridge (the photo on the left shows the exposed eastern face), which is occasionally marked with stone piles. Soon you will reach the summit of Judele, marked with a wooden pole.

NE Carpathians

The lowest group of the Carpathians, located at the NE reaches of the Pannonian basin, forms a stout flysch bridge between the old orogens of the Northwestern Carpathians and those of the Eastern Carpathians. The topography of the Northeastern Carpathians is rather monotonous. The outer belt of flysch is accompanied by an inner belt of Tertiary volcanoes. The elevation of the mountains and passes generally increases toward the southeast to finally culminate in the highest summits of the Chornohora Range (Black Mountains) and the Marmarosh Mountains, but the highest point hardly exceeds 2000 m. Most of the other ranges generally rise within the 1000-1500 m bracket. The borders of this quarter of the Carpathians are drawn somewhat arbitrarily: usually the valley of the Topľa River in the NW and Prislop/Borşa pass in the SE.

In the tables below, the member ranges of the NE Carpathians have been listed from northwest to southeast, sorted by rock type; in the following format: mountain range - highest peak - elevation (in meters). The divisions and names of the subgroups within the sandstone chain are plenty and confusing. A case in point can be the borderline between the Eastern Beskids and the Marmarosh Mts., which has completely different versions: 1) Użocka/Uzhots'kyi pass at the Polish/Ukrainian border, 2) Verets'kyi pass, 3) the source of Bela Tysa (White Tisa) River by the Ukrainian/Romanian border. Here we have used the last one, as it is the most commonly applied today.

Triangles indicate the highest peaks of particular ranges (hover the mouse over them to see the names of the ranges and peaks). Black pentagons indicate major towns (click - if available - to open links for airports).
Central / Low Beskid (Bušov, 1002 m)Góry Sanocko-Turczańskie (Magura Łomniańska, 1024 m)Bieszczady Zachodnie (Tarnica, 1346 m)Bieszczady Wschodnie (Pikui, 1405 m)Beskidy Skolskie (Parashka, 1269 m)Gorgany (Syvulia, 1836 m)Pokuts'ki Karpaty (Rotylo, 1483 m)Mountains of Northeastern Bukovyna (Lungul, 1377)Putylski Hory (Yarovytsia, 1575 m)Obcina Mare (Skoruşet, 1223)Obcina Feredeu (Veju Mare, 1494)Obcina Mestecăniş (Ţapul Mare, 1661)Polonyna-Runa (Runa, 1480 m)Polonyna Borzhava (Stiy, 1682 m)Polonyna Krasna (Hropa, 1564 m)Svydovets' (Blyznytsia, 1881 m)Chornohora (Hoverla, 2061 m)Hryniavs'ki Hory (Pohreptyna, 1605 m)Munţii Maramureş (Farcău, 1956 m)Vihorlatské vrchy (Vihorlat, 1076 m)Makovytsia-Synyak (Dunauka, 1019 m)Velykyi Dil (Buzhora, 1085 m)Tupyi Mountains (Tupij, 878 m)Munţii Oaş (Piatra Vâscului, 917 m)Creasta Pietrii (Igniş, 1307 m)Munţii Gutâi (Gutâi, 1445 m)Munţii Lăpuş (Văratec, 1348 m)Munţii Ţibleş (Ţibleş, 1839 m)Košice /Kassa/ (SK)Uzhorod /Ungvár/ (UA)Satu Mare /Szatmárnémeti, Sathmar/ (RO)Ivano-Frankivsk (UA)Lviv (UA)
Wetlinska Meadow II - Summit VistasWestern Bieszczady - fall
Maramures seen from ChornohoraMarmarosh Mts. - winter
Main ridge and HoverlaChornohora - summer

Sandstone (flysch) beltVolcanic belt
Central / Low Beskidbetween the Topľa River and Lupkovský/Łupków pass, in Poland known as Beskid Niski, in Slovakia as Ondavské vrchyBušov1002
Eastern Beskyds (a.k.a. Ukrainian Carpathians)usually split into two subgroups: the Polonyna Ridge and the Wooded Beskyds/Carpathians - details in a separate table belowHoverla2061
Marmarosh Mountainsthe most complex and unique of all the mountains in the Northeastern Carpathians, in geological and geomorphological terms - more info below this tableFarcău1956
Bukovina Carpathiansa group of parallel ranges within the borders of the historic Bukovina (now in Ukraine and Romania):UA - Mountains of Northeastern Bukovyna (Lungul, 1377), Putyls'ki Hory (Yarovytsia, 1575)RO - Obcina Mestecăniş (Ţapul Mare, 1661), Obcina Feredeu (Veju Mare, 1494) and Obcina Mare (Skoruşet, 1223)Ţapul Mare1661
Vihorlatské vrchyVihorlat1076
Velykyi DilBuzhora1085
Tupyi Mts.Tupij878
Munţii OaşPiatra Vâscului917
Creasta PietriiIgniş1307
Munţii GutâiGutâiul Mare1445
Munţii LăpuşVăratec1348
Munţii ŢibleşBran1840

Sometimes the Oaş and Lăpuş Mountains, along with Creasta Pietrii, are incorporated into the Gutâi Mountains.

HoverlaChornohora - winter
Pearl of the ChornohoraChornohora - summer
Cliff of Pip Ivan s corrieMarmarosh Mts.
Mount Cergowa ( 716 m )Low Beskid
Karst arch Polonyna Krasna - fall
GutaiGutâi Mountains

Cearcănul (Sárkány)

To demonstrate the complexity of the Marmarosh Mountains, it should suffice to list their highest peaks along with the rocks they are composed of:

  • Pop Ivan (1937 m) - Precambrian gneiss, one of the oldest rocks in the Carpathians
  • Farcău (1956 m) - submarine basalt
  • Mihailecu (1920 m) - alternate beds of limestone and basalt, folded and set vertically
  • Toroiaga (1930 m) - andesite (lava intrusion)

The above peaks once comprised the main ridge of the Marmarosh Mountains, which has been cut by headward erosion of the tributaries of the Vişeu (Vyshov) river. (This part of the Carpathians - in contrast to the NW Carpathians - is still being lifted relatively quickly.) Therefore most of today's main ridge is a much lower, mostly flysch ridge (its central part is often called the Chyvchyn Mts), and the isolated, non-flysch, highest summits of the Marmarosh stand alone and tall. This interesting geomorphology is enhanced by traces of little glaciers of the Ice Age.

The highest range of the Bukovina Carpathians (Obcina Mestecăniş) is geologically similarly patchworked, although it is less prominent.

Maramureş Mountains
Marmarosh Mountains viewed from the Rodnei Mountains - summer

As to the Eastern Beskids / Ukrainian Carpathians, the various divisions, names (Ukrainian/Polish/Rusyn) and elevations found on the maps and in the guidebooks can be perplexing. In the table below, we have aimed to provide an accurate and reasonably comprehensive list. Providing you are able to decipher Cyrillic, you can also enjoy these excellent maps.

Wooded Beskyds / Wooded Carpathians(In Polish: Beskidy Lesiste. In Ukraine, the term Beskydy is not normally used for any mountains east of Toruns'kyi/Vyshkovskyi Pass.)Polonyna Ridge(Polonyns'kyj chrebet)
Western Bieszczady (Polish: Bieszczady Zachodnie)between Lupkovský/Łupkowska and Użocka/Uzhots'kyi passTarnica1346
Eastern Bieszczady (Polish: Bieszczady Wschodnie)or Skolivs'ki Beskydyseveral parallel ridges between Użocka/Uzhots'kyi and Toruns'kyi/Vyshkovskyi passPikui1405
Gorgany (Horhany)SE of the Bieszczady/Skolivs'ki Beskydy as far as the Prut riverSyvulia1836
Pokuts'ki Karpaty between the Prut and the Cheremosh riversRotylo1483
Polonyna-Runa (Rivna)Runa/Rivna1480
Polonyna BorzhavaStiy (Stohy)1682
Polonyna KrasnaHropa (Gropa)1564
Hryniavs'ki HoryPohreptyna / Polonyna Myhailova1605

Issues that complicate the situation:

  • The SW part of the Western Bieszczady lies in Slovakia, where it is known as Bukovské vrchy.
  • The NE threshold of the Bieszczady is named the Sanok-Turka Mts (Polish: Góry Sanocko-Turczańskie - Magura Łomniańska, 1022) or the Upper Dniester Beskyds (Ukrainian: Verkhnio-Dnistrovs'ki Beskydy).
  • In Ukraine, the term Eastern Beskydy is used for the parts of both the Western and the Eastern Bieszczady that lie north-east of the main ridge. What Poles call Beskidy Skolskie (Parashka, 1269) is the northeasternmost range of the Eastern Bieszczady.

The Sun of BieszczadyW Bieszczady - winter
Three polonynasToward Polonyna Runa
Sunrise viewed from SvydovetsSvydovets' - summer
View from Wyzna Pass (872 m) towards Mount Tarnica (1364 m)W Bieszczady - fall
Swidowiec,UkraineSvydovets' - fall
His majesty Marmarosh Mts. - summer

E Carpathians

Ferdinand ;)
Face to face

The Eastern Carpathians run southwardly from Prislop/Borşa and the valley of the Bistriţa Aurie at least as far as Predeal Pass, beyond which rises the dramatic wall of the Bucegi Mountains towering over the Prahova Valley. If more attention is drawn to the rock type than to the topography, the west frontier of the Eastern Carpathians will have to be pushed farther west and the most logical border line will be Giuvala Pass (Bran-Rucar corridor). If you have read the previous chapters, you will not be surprised that we have opted for the latter division line.

The location of the highest point of the Eastern Carpathians depends on the answer to the question where the southwestern reaches of these mountains are. Having decided on Giuvala Pass, we have to look towards the Bucegi Mountains and point to their highest summit Omu, 2509 m. Had we opted for Predeal Pass and the Prahova Valley, it would be the highest peak of the Rodnei Mountains (Pietrosu Mare, 2303 m). Except for these two ranges, most of the other mountains in this part of the Carpathians reach elevations from 1500 to 2000 m.

In the Eastern Carpathians, all the three lithologic belts characteristic of the Northwestern Carpathians get exposed again. The volcanic range is of great importance and boasts the highest volcanic massifs across the Carpathians. The flysch belt is well developed, as wide as the flysch belt of the Northeastern Carpathians but - especially on the Transylvanian side - differs from the typical Carpathian flysch in that it contains large amounts of calcium. As a result, several ranges of the Eastern Carpathians show off scenic, bizarre, mighty rock formations of calcareous conglomerate (or arenaceous, i.e. sandy, limestone).

The table below lists member ranges of the Eastern Carpathians from north to south, sorted by rock type, in the following format: mountain range - highest peak - elevation (in meters).

Triangles indicate the highest peaks of particular ranges (hover the mouse over them to see the names of the ranges and peaks). Black pentagons indicate major towns with - except Braşov - airports (click to open links).
Munţii Rodnei (Pietrosu Mare, 2303 m)Munţii Bârgău (Heniul Mare, 1612 m)Munţii Suhard (Omului, 1932 m)Munţii Bistriţei (Budacu, 1859 m)Munţii Giurgeu (Şipoş, 1576 m)Munţii Ciucului - North (Noşcolat, 1553 m)Munţii Căliman (Pietrosu, 2102 m)Munţii Gurghiului (Saca Mare, 1777 m)Munţii Harghita (Harghita-Mădăraş, 1800 m)Ciomat (Ciomatul Mare, 1301 m)Munţii Giumalău-Rarău (Giumalău, 1856 m)Munţii Giumalău-Rarău (Rarău, 1651 m)Munţii Stânişoarei (Bivolul, 1530 m)Munţii Ceahlău (Ocolaşul Mare, 1907 m)Munţii Goşman (Cracul Geamăna, 1442 m)Munţii Tarcăului (Grinduşul, 1664 m)Munţii Hăşmaş (Hăşmaşul Mare, 1793 m)Munţii Ciucului - South (Şoiul Mare, 1553 m)Munţii Nemira (Nemira Mare, 1649 m)Munţii Bodoc (Cărpiniş, 1241 m)Munţii Baraolt (Gurgău, 1017 m)Munţii Perşani (Măgura Codlei, 1292 m)Munţii Vrancei (Goru, 1783 m)Munţii Penteleu (Penteleu, 1772 m)Podu Calului (Podul Calului, 1440 m)Munţii Siriu (Siriu/Bocârne, 1657 m)Munţii Ciucaş (Ciucaş, 1954 m)Munţii Grohotiş (Grohotiş, 1767 m)Munţii Baiului (Neamţului, 1923 m)Munţii Bârsei - Piatra Mare (Piatra Mare, 1843 m)Munţii Bârsei - Postavarul (Cristianul Mare, 1804 m)Munţii Bucegi (Omu, 2507 m)Munţii Leaota (Leaota, 2133 m)Sibiu /Hermannstadt, Nagyszeben/Braşov /Kronstadt, Brassó/Târgu Mureş /Marosvásárhely/Cluj-Napoca /Kolozsvár, Klausenburg/
Pietrosu and Buhăescu peaksRodnei Mountains - summer
CiucasCiucaş Mountains - spring
Rock climbing areaBucegi Mountains - spring

Flysch beltCrystalline beltVolcanic belt
We have split the great number of mountain ranges within this group into these two (subsequent ranges are listed in a separate table below):
  • Moldovan-Transylvanian subgroup
  • Carpathian Bend subgroup

The term Carpathian Bend, (Romanian: Carpaţii Curburii; Hungarian: Kárpátkanyar) is in widespread use for the mountains between Oituz pass and Giuvala pass, where the great Carpathian arc takes a sharp turn (from N-S to E-W).
Munţii RodneiPietrosu2303
Munţii SuhardOmului1932
Munţii Giumalău-RarăuGiumalău1856
Munţii BârgăuHeniul Mare1612
Munţii BistriţeiBudacu1859
Munţii GiurgeuŞipoş1576
Munţii PerşaniMăgura Codlei1292
Munţii CiuculuiNoşcolat1553
Munţii LeaotaLeaota2133

The Perşani Mountains are geologically complex and display sedimentary and volcanic rocks as well as crystalline rocks.The southern part of Munţii Ciucului consists of sedimentary rocks.
Munţii CălimanPietrosu2102
Munţii GurghiuluiSaca Mare1777
Munţii HarghitaHarghita-Mădăraş1800
CiomatCiomatul Mare1301

Ciomat is a relatively small volcanic block situated on the periphery of the flysch Bodoc Mts., but geologically related to the Harghita Mts.Ciomat is the youngest and best preserved volcano of the group, cradling the beautiful Szent-Anna Lake in its main crater. There is still intensive post-volcanic activity in the area.SP photo album about Ciomat

Pietrosu and Grohotu
Rodnei Mountains (Vf. Pietrosu) - highest crystalline

Ocolaşul Mare - Ceahlău mountainsOcolaşul Mare, Ceahlău Mts
 Dripping Stone , TransylvaniaGurghiului Mts
LeaotaLeaota Mts

Călimani Mts - highest volcano

Ranges of the flysch belt in detail:

Moldovan-Transylvanian subgroupCarpathian Bend subgroup
Moldovan ranges
Munţii StânişoareiBivolul1530
Ceahlău *Ocolaşul Mare1907
Munţii GoşmanCracul Geamăna1442
Munţii TarcăuluiGrinduşul1664
Transylvanian ranges
Munţii NemiraNemira Mare1649
Munţii Ciucului (S)Şoiul Mare1553
Munţii BodocCărpiniş1241
Munţii BaraoltGurgău1017

The northern part of Munţii Ciucului consists of crystalline rocks.
Munţii VranceiGoru1783
Munţii PenteleuPenteleu1772
Podu CaluluiPodul Calului1440
Munţii SiriuSiriu/Bocârne1657
Munţii Ciucaş *Ciucaş1954
Munţii GrohotişGrohotiş1767
Munţii Baiului (Gârbova)Neamţului1923
Munţii Bucegi *Omu2507

The Ciucaş, Baiului, Grohotiş and Bârsei (mostly limestone, see below) mountains are often grouped together as Munţii Braşovului. Likewise, the Penteleu, Podu Calului and Siriu mountains (along with the small Întorsurii and Ivăneţu mountains, which are neglected here) are often grouped together as Munţii Buzăului.

Ranges marked with an asterisk (*) in the above table are composed mostly of calcareous conglomerates (and arenaceous limestone) and boast scenic rock formations.
Ciucaş - Tigăile MariCiucas

Spectacular limestone ranges and blocks:

  • Rarău in the Giumalău-Rarău Mountains (Rarău, 1651 m)
  • Munţii Hăşmaş (Hăşmaşul Mare, 1793 m) - featuring Egyeskő/Piatra Singuratică, Oltár-kő/Piatra Altarului, Fekete-Hagymás/Hăghimaşul Negru, the breathtaking Békás/Bicaz gorge, and Gyilkos-tó/Lacul Roşu (a lake created by a 19th century landslide blocking a stream)
  • Vargyas (Vârghiş) gorge and Măgura Codlei in the Perşani Mountains
  • Bârsei Mountains - consisting of two distinct massifs: Postavarul (Cristianul Mare, 1804 m) and Piatra Mare (Piatra Mare, 1843 m)

Oltár-kő/Piatra Altarului(Altar Rock)
Egyeskő / Piatra SinguraticăEgyeskő/Piatra Singuratică(Solitary Rock)
Gheara Pisicii (right side)Piatra Mare/Nagykőhavas(Big Rock)
Spring in TransylvaniaGyilkos-tó/Lacu Roşu(Killer/Red Lake)
Is This DRACULA?Békás-szoros/Cheile Bicazului(Froggy Gorge)

S Carpathians

The Southern Carpathians (also known as the Transylvanian Alps) extend from the Mountains of Banat in the west to Giuvala Pass, or - according to a diverse vision - Predeal Pass in the east, where the mountain system meets the Eastern Carpathians. If the latter endpoint is assumed, the Bucegi and Leaota mountains, which we have included in the Eastern Carpathians, belong to the Southern Carpathians.

Bucura cirque panorama
Retezat Mountains - spring

The Southern Carpathians differ from the Northwestern, Northeastern and Eastern Carpathians in that both flysch and volcanic belts are completely missing from them. These mountains are the most elevated, southern edge of the ancient Tisa-Dacia platform. They contain about a dozen ranges that exceed 2000 m in elevation, including eight ranges rising above 2200 m - more than the other parts of the Carpathian Mountains altogether. However, many of the high ranges of the Southern Carpathians are rather monotonous. The ridges, usually of metamorphic schists and gneiss, are generally broad and constitute remnants of a Tertiary plain - best preserved and easily recognizable in the Godeanu mountains - lifted high, deeply cut by the rivers and since time immemorial used as pastureland. These natural meadows have been extended by clearing the bushes of the mountain pine above the tree line, which may also have been lowered; especially on the less rocky, warmer, southern slopes. The bold alpine, or rather Tatra-like relief, is to be found in the Făgăraş and the Retezat mountains, and also in the highest part of the Parâng. Limestone karst is fabulously developed in the southwestern, lower ranges, whereas at the east end of the Southern Carpathians stands the most spectacular limestone ridge in the Carpathian Mountains, the Piatra Craiului (Royal Rock), which offers plenty of climbing opportunities and shelters stunning wildlife.

The gentle surface of Godeanu
Godeanu Mountains - summer

The table below lists member ranges of the Southern Carpathians from east to west, split into three major mountain groups, in the following format: mountain range - highest peak - elevation (in meters).

Triangles indicate the highest peaks of particular ranges (hover the mouse over them to see the names of the ranges and peaks). Black pentagons indicate major towns with - except Braşov - airports (click to open links).
Piatra Craiului (La Om, 2238 m)Munţii Iezer-Păpuşa (Roşu, 2469 m)Munţii Făgăraş (Moldoveanu, 2544 m)Munţii Cozia (Cozia, 1668 m)Munţii Cândrel (Cândrel, 2244 m)Munţii Lotru (Stefliste, 2242 m)Munţii Căpăţânii (Nedeia, 2130 m)Buila-Vânturariţa (Vânturariţa I, 1885 m)Munţii Şurean (lui Pătru, 2130 m)Munţii Parâng (Parângu Mare, 2519 m)Munţii Retezat (Peleaga, 2509 m)Munţii Vâlcan (Oslea, 1946 m)Munţii Ţarcu (Pietrii, 2192 m)Munţii Godeanu (Gugu, 2291 m)Munţii Mehedinţi (lui Stan, 1466 m)Munţii Cernei (Dobrii, 1928 m)Timişoara /Temesvár/ (RO)Sibiu /Hermannstadt, Nagyszeben/ (RO)Braşov /Kronstadt, Brassó/ (RO)Târgu Mureş /Marosvásárhely/ (RO)Cluj-Napoca /Kolozsvár, Klausenburg/ (RO)
Piatra CraiuluiPiatra Craiului - summer
Negoiu peak (2535m) taken...Făgăraş Mountains - winter
Lakes of the Bucura valleyRetezat Mountains - summer

Făgăraş GroupParâng GroupRetezat Group
M. FăgăraşMoldoveanu2544
Iezer-Păpuşa massifRoşu2469
Munţii CândrelCândrel2244
Munţii LotruŞtefleşti2242
Munţii Şureanului Pătru2130
Munţii ParângParângu Mare2519
Munţii CăpăţâniiNedeia2130
Munţii RetezatPeleaga2509
Munţii VâlcanOslea1946
Munţii ŢarcuPietrii2192
Munţii GodeanuGugu2291

The  Iezer-Papusa  mt.., the hihghest summit ( 2391 m), in the center
Iezer-Papuşa - winter

rocky wall of Gruiul peak (2345m)Parâng
Bucura from Pietrele valleyRetezat

Leontopodium alpinum II

Remarkable limestone blocks:

  • Piatra Craiului (La Om, 2238 m) - the most majestic limestone range of all in the Carpathians, whose name translates as Royal Rock
  • Munţii Cozia (Cozia / Ciuha Mare, 1668 m) - on the western edge of the Făgăraş Group, across the Olt river from the limestone part of the Căpăţânii Mountains
  • Buila-Vânturariţa massif (Vânturariţa I, 1885 m) - interesting, prominent dolomite ridge in the southeastern corner of the Căpăţânii Mountains
  • Munţii Cernei (Dobrii, 1928 m) - southerly extension of the Godeanu Mountains
  • Munţii Mehedinţi (lui Stan, 1466 m) - vast karst area dotted with caves and gorges, southwestern extension of the Vâlcan Mountains

Piatra CraiuluiPiatra Craiului
RomaniaFrom Cozia to Buila

South Ridge
Piatra Craiului - winter

SW Carpathians

Nera s Gorges
Nera Gorges
(Munţii Aninei)
Beusnita Falls (Aninei)

What we have identified as the Southwestern Carpathians consists of three separate mountain groups.

1) By the Danube River, in the historic province of Banat, sits the last segment of the Carpathian Arc. The mountains of Banat and the northernmost mountains of Eastern Serbia can be seen as parts of the same mountain group - a link between the Carpathian chain and the Balkan (Stara Planina) Mountains - split by the canyon of the Danube. In fact, there are three options for the SW end of the Carpathians:

a) The gorges of the Danube, for which we have opted here.
b) The Juzna (South) Morava and the Timok rivers in Serbia.
c) The Timiş (Temes) and Mehadica rivers in Romania.

Regardless of whereabouts the Carpathians end, the eastern border of the mountains of Banat runs straight north from the Iron Gate proper, along the tectonic fault line which determines the course of the Mehadica and Timiş rivers, between the towns of Orşova and Caranşebeş.

2) To the north-east of these mountains, north-west of the Retezat Mountains, lies the massif of Poiana Ruscă - for centuries heavily grazed, and more recently heavily mined for iron. Both the mountains of Banat and the Poiana Ruscă contain fairly low mountains (below 1500 m a.s.l.) and are often regarded as parts of the Southern Carpathians.

3) Finally, north of the Poiana Ruscă, across the valley of the Mureş (Maros) River, stands the largest and highest (above 1800 m) Carpathian "island" (some geological classifications exclude it from the Carpathians, however), bounded by the Pannonian Plain in the west and separated from the Carpathian Arc by the upland of Transylvania in the east. Romanian people call it Munţii Apuseni, which translates as the Western Mountains (before World War I, they were called the Island Mountains of Eastern Hungary, nowadays Hungarians refer to them as Island Mountains of Transylvania).

Craciunesti main  wallMunţii Metaliferi (Ore Mts)
Cheiile ManastiriiTrascău/Torockó Mts
Inside the caldronPadiş/Pádis karst world

The Southwestern Carpathians are the lowest and least forested of the five major parts of the Carpathians we have depicted on this page, each in a different chapter. What makes these mountains fascinating is the fact that they embrace vast limestone areas, including the most spectacular karst paradise of all in the Carpathians: the Padiş Plateau in the Bihor Mountains. Some evidence suggests that the ancient core of the Apuseni differs from that of the Carpathian Basin and could have once been part of the Dinarides. On the flanks of the Apuseni, besides limestone plateaus, post-Paleozoic lava (most of the Vlădeasa Mountains) and flysch are also present.

In the tables below, the member ranges of each group are listed from north to south, in the following format: mountain range - highest peak - elevation (in meters). Ranges marked with an asterisk (*) in the tables display spectacular limestone karst.

Triangles indicate the highest peaks of particular ranges (hover the mouse over them to see the names of the ranges and peaks). Black pentagons indicate major towns with - except Braşov - airports (click to open links).
Munţii Plopişului / Şes (Măgura Mare, 918 m)Munţii Meseş (Măgura Priei, 996 m)Pădurea Craiului (Hodrâncuşa, 1027 m)Vlădeasa (Vlădeasa, 1836 m)Codru Moma (Pleşu, 1112 m)Munţii Bihor (Cucurbăta Mare, 1849 m)Padiş (Biserica Moţului, 1456 m)Munţii Gilău (Muntele Mare, 1826 m)Munţii Zarand (Drocea, 836 m)Munţii Metalliferi (Poieniţa, 1437 m)Munţii Trascău (Dâmbău, 1369 m)Poiana Ruscă (Padeş, 1374 m)Munţii Aninei (Leordis, 1160 m)Munţii Semenic (Semenic/Piatra Goznei, 1446 m)Munţii Locvei (Corhanul Mare, 735 m)Munţii Almăjului (Svinecea Mare, 1224 m)Timişoara /Temesvár/ (RO)Sibiu /Hermannstadt, Nagyszeben/ (RO)Târgu Mureş /Marosvásárhely/ (RO)Cluj-Napoca /Kolozsvár, Klausenburg/ (RO)
Székelykő from the Szentgyörgy castleSzékelykő (Szeklers' Rock)
Hiker s ParadiseFrom Trascău to Gilău
Tordai Hasadék (Cheile Turzii)Turda/Torda Gorge

Apuseni Mountains (Western Transylvania)
Northern group
Pădurea Craiului *Hodrâncuşa1027
Munţii Plopişului / ŞesMăgura Mare918
Munţii MeseşMăgura Priei996
Central group
Codru MomaPleşu1112
Munţii Bihor *Cucurbăta Mare1849
Munţii GilăuMuntele Mare1826
Southern group
Munţii ZarandDrocea836
Munţii MetalliferiPoieniţa1437
Munţii Trascău *Dâmbău1369
Poiana Ruscă and Mountains of Banat
Poiana RuscăPadeş1374

Munţii SemenicSemenic / Piatra Goznei1446
Munţii Aninei *Leordis1160
Munţii AlmăjuluiSvinecea Mare1224
Munţii LocveiCorhanul Mare735
NERA S GORGESDanube River atCarpathians' SW end

Eminenciás-vízesés / Cascada EvantaiGalbena Gorge(Padiş plateau)
Turnul Ascuţit (Éles-torony)Turda/Torda Gorge(Trascău/Torockó Mts)
Rock in Cheile RametiRâmeţ/Remete Gorge(Trascău/Torockó Mts)

Truly Transylvania
Padiş/Pádis karst plateau


Romanian Piatra Craiului

German Königstein

Hungarian Királykő

Retyezat Overview Resummited

Instead of "Geography"

Granite, take away the High Tatras, is not a common rock in the Carpathians at all. But the bulk of the Retezat Mountains which sit between the Parâng group in the east and the Godeanu and Ţarcu mountains in the west is of granite. Were the Retezat Mountains just two hundred meters higher, they would be most likely as jagged as the High Tatras are. Hardly rising above 2500 m, the Retezat Mountains are no doubt gentler, however, the northern walls of some of their peaks house several fine rock-climbing routes at UIAA grade V (YDS 5.8) and over, not to mention a number of routes which are less demanding but no less fun.
Lakes of the Bucura valley 
Gate Tower of Retezat 
The northern main ridge of Retezat Mountains 

The Retezat Mountains have 55 peaks over 2000 m and are probably the most prominent mountainous area in the Southern Carpathians (sometimes called "Transylvanian Alps"), covering almost 500 square km. Its average elevation is over 1500 m, with a quarter of its territory rising above 1800 m (and still rising in our days, by about 3.5 mm/year). Since the Retezat Mountains were sculpted by glaciers in the Pleistocene epoch, they are rich in beautiful, turquoise tarns and tumbling waterfalls. The biggest of the glaciers gouged the pits which have filled up with water and now shine as the lakes of Bucura Cirque. That longest glacier had a length of about 15 km, thus ranking longest of all in the Southern Carpathians. Due to mechanical erosion in periglacial climatic conditions, the highest terrain is almost completely covered with granite blocks and scree. Take caution when walking over this rubble – not only because the rocks are loose but also because the trail marks are more difficult to spot (more on the marking in the Routes section).
From Curmatura Bucurei pass 
Sunset from Bucura lake.  
On the way to Vf. Peleaga 

The Retezat Mountains are made up of two parallel main ridges that run southwest to northeast and are connected by a short perpendicular ridge, thus forming a letter H. The east part of the mountains is lower than their west part. Also, the northern ridge is considerably higher than the southern ridge (Custura, 2457 m), which runs on the other side of the valleys of the Lăpuşnicul Mare and Bărbaţ rivers. Therefore it is the northwest part of the mountains - boasting the highest peaks and series of tarns (see next chapter) on both sides of the main ridge - that attracts the most visitors. The west part of the southern ridge (Piule-Iorgovanu) is mostly formed of limestone. This area, often referred to as "Little Retezat" (Retezatul Mic /Kis-Retyezát/) contains typical karst forms, such as narrow gorges and caves. The most interesting scenery can be found at a group of limestone rocks forming the summit of Piatra Iorgovanului (1997 m) in the southwest corner of the Retezat Mountains, where bears often roam at dusk or dawn. Limestone also forms the ridge of Oslea (1946 m) – the highest summit in the Vâlcan Mountains – rising south of Piatra Iorgovanului, across the Jiu de Vest River.
stanisoara valley 
After the stormLittle Retezat
Lacul LiaOslea on horizon

Here a paragraph on winter may do.
Panorama from Peleaga

Retezat- winter 2008 

The following table introduces the 7 highest summits in the Retezat ("peak" = vârful in Romanian, abbreviated to Vf.):
Peleaga peak and Tău Porţii

Papusa N face

Retezat north face


Zemplén MountainsUnder construction