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Quad anchor

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Quad anchor

Page Type: Article

Object Title: Quad anchor

Activities: Trad Climbing, Sport Climbing, Toprope, Ice Climbing, Aid Climbing, Big Wall, Mixed, Scrambling, Via Ferrata

 

Page By: Jukka Ahonen

Created/Edited: Feb 24, 2012 / Feb 26, 2012

Object ID: 777941

Hits: 6347 

Page Score: 81.82%  - 15 Votes 

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Definition of a good Anchor

Let us start with the basic question: What is a good anchor?


A good anchor in any setting, be it snow, ice or rock, should have a set of properties to maximize the security of the anchor in question. To remember these, you can use the acronym EARNEST:

E - Equalized
A - Angle less then 60 degrees
R - Redundant
NE - No Extension
S - Solid
T - Timely

To make sure you understand these the same way I do, here are some brief notes on each.

 
Snow anchors deployed
 
Equalized - Your anchor should always have at least two points of contact to the ground (ice, or snow), and the load should be distributed as evenly as possible between these two points.

Angle - The angle between the contact points to the ground and the attachment point to the rope should be less than 60 degrees. For more information, please check this article on Wikipedia. In simple terms: Try to make sure that the resulting V-formation of the anchor is as narrow as possible.

Redundant - The resulting anchor should be redundant for every part in it. In simple terms, pay attention to every piece of gear you have installed; if any one of them should break, you should always have secondary security built into the anchor. No single failure should lead to total failure of the anchor. (please note that in the images to the right, only one biner is used to clip the rope. For a fully redundant system you should have two, but the second is omitted from the images for sake of clarity)

No Extension - There should be no extension, or slack, in the system. The more extension there is, the more brutal the shock forces will be in a case of a fall. The length of the middle part of the Quad, between the overhand knots, affects the amount of potential slack in a partial failure situation. A wider middle means more potential slack.

Solid - The ground (snow, or ice) into which your anchor is attached should be as solid as possible. Also, all knots in the system should be properly dressed.

Timely - This is where it becomes sort of complicated: you need to address each point mentioned above, but still you should be able to deploy the anchor within reasonable time frame. Especially in Alpine conditions, the longer you expose yourself to the elements, the higher the objective hazards tend to grow.

What is a Quad, then?

 
Quad in place
 
A Quad, basically, is a pre-built system of some cord and a few biners that will help you address many of the points mentioned above in a timely manner.

It is essentially a double loop of cord, with two overhand knots along the way and with a locking carabiner on each end.

The Quad fulfills these requirements of a good anchor:

1) It is automatically equalized (as long as the two anchor points are not too far away from each other)

2) It is redundant

3) When placed correctly, it has no slack or extension

4) It is very quick to place, thus it is timely


 
Rope clipped into a Quad
 
The only drawbacks I can think of are:

1) This should only be used by people who understand the mechanics, and could build an anchor without a Quad. You should not build one for your beginner friend, without him or her understanding why and how it works.

2) It can be a bit bulky (especially if you use 8mm cord like I do).

3) The stress tends to build into the same spots every time. You must keep an eye on your Quad, and watch out for wear and tear closely.

How to build a Quad?

 
Proper way to clip onto a Quad
 
What you need in order to build one are:

- 6 meters of cord, 6mm or more (I personally use 8mm)
- 2 locking biners
- knowledge of how to tie a double fisherman's knot
- knowledge of how to tie a overhand knot

1) Make a loop out of the cord. Use a double fisherman's to tie the ends together.

2) Twist the loop so that it is doubled.

3) At around quarter of the length from either end, tie an overhand knot. Make sure the double fisherman is at either end, and not in the middle section.

4) Clip a locking carabiner to each end of the Quad

The Quad is now ready to deploy!

How and When to use a Quad

 
Equalized Quad
 
You clip the Quad into bolts, ice screws or other choice of protection which is connected to the ground. You then clip yet another carabiner in the middle, between the overhand knots, and clip the rope into that biner.

The thing to keep in mind, is that you should never clip around all four strands of cord in the middle. Always clip around 3, and leave 1 alone. This is very important: if either end of the Quad should fail, the Quad will remain secure only if you have not clipped around all 4 strands, thus enabling the carabiner between the Quad and your rope to slip off the Quad.

The Quad works best in top-roping, or pre-bolted multi-pitch routes, where you will save quite a bit of time over a long route.

On ice or snow, a third piece of protection is ideal, so Quad may not be your best choice, unless you have very solid ice.

External links

This website has a video demonstrating the process of making a Quad, as well as using it: Obsessive Climbing.

There is also a discussion on the SP forums about the use of Quads in climbing. Please see it for additional comments.

Images

Equalized QuadQuad anchorSnow anchors deployedQuad in placeRope clipped into a QuadProper way to clip onto a Quad

Comments


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Viewing: 1-6 of 6    

Sarah SimonThanks

Sarah Simon

Voted 10/10

I love how-to articles. Even if people are bound to argue over "preferred best practices," I think it's great to have material like this on SP.

Thanks for the contribution.

Sarah
Posted Feb 26, 2012 11:08 pm

Jukka AhonenRe: Thanks

Jukka Ahonen

Hasn't voted

Thank you very much Sarah, I hope other people feel the same :)
Posted Feb 27, 2012 2:04 am

BurkeMRe: Thanks

BurkeM

Hasn't voted

Agreed because if nothing else it opens up a forum of discussion regarding preferred methods. Cheers!
Posted Feb 28, 2012 10:44 pm

Brian CQuad

Brian C

Voted 10/10

Well written article. I never use one, but it's a legit way to make an anchor in certain situations.
Posted Feb 29, 2012 6:05 pm

Steve LarsonQuad

Steve Larson

Voted 6/10

This is basically a double-length runner used in a sliding-X configuration. Why not use that? I don't see a reason for using 4 strands--it's just more stuff to mess with. The usual way of clipping a sliding-X is to put a single twist in one of the strands, then clip both. You're still through the loop in the event on end rips, but you have both strands to hold the force when they both hold.
Posted Apr 13, 2012 11:44 pm

Jukka AhonenRe: Quad

Jukka Ahonen

Hasn't voted

The the reason is to give you redundancy also in a situation where your webbing snaps at any one point. Overkill? Perhaps.
Posted Apr 14, 2012 2:53 am

Viewing: 1-6 of 6