Kremen is a name for the mountain and its highest summit, situated in Lička Plješivica massif in Lika region of Croatia.
The topography of Lika is characterized by high massifs and mountain ranges among which karstic fields and high plains called polje lay. Those fields are found at altitudes ranging from 430 m to 660 m above sea level and are separated from each other by limestone ridges such is Kremen´s.
Although Kremen´s summit, with its 1,590 m of height, holds somewhere around 60th place on the-highest-summits list of Croatia, Kremen as a mountain is the 5th highest in the State.
Kremen is shared by two Croatian counties Zadar County (Zadarska županija) and Lika-Senj County (Ličko-senjska županija). It is situated 15 kms SW of Ozeblin (1,657 m), the highest peak of Lička Plješivica massif. In fact, Kremen is situated in the area where the highest part of Lička Plješivica massif ends (that is Lička Pljesivica in "narrow sense", with peaks as are Ozeblin and Gola Plješivica 1,648 m, Trovrh 1,620,…) and continue further somewhat lower and less forested in SE direction - in direction of Poštak mountain, Zrmanja river source area, Dinara massif, Dalmatia region and the southeastern end of long Velebit massif. That makes Lička Plješivica the second longest mountain massif in Croatia, with almost 100 km in length.
Roughly said, Kremen mountain spreads over almost rectangular shape that is split in two halfs by Mazin pass-Banovo pass-Podkuk (Udbina) forest road, just one of many forest roads in the area, used mosty for forest exploitation.
Natural borders of Kremen mountain are (starting from its NW then counter-clockwise): SE edge of Krbavsko polje (Krbava field) – Bruvanjsko polje (Bruvno filed) – Mazinski prijevoj or Mazinska previja (Mazin pass; 818 m) – Mazinsko polje (Mazin field) – Lapačko polje (Lapac field) - Kuk mountain pass (1,142 m) - and back again, Krbava field.
On its northern side Kremen is separated from Ozeblin mountain by Kuk pass and Udbina-Veljun-Donji Lapac local road. Along its western and south-western slopes runs Udbina-Bruvno section of Zagreb-Split state road (D-1). On its southern and south-eastern side Kremen is separated from south-eastern parts of Licka Plješivica massif and its first mountain neighbor Urljaj by Bruvno-Mazin-Donji Lapac road (D-506) and Mazin pass. Mazin pass also separates Bruvno field from Mazin field.
Description – Morphology
Visually, Kremen is a wide mountain the best viewed from the village of Bruvno (750 m) where it rises somewhat less than 1,000 meters above surrounding Bruvanjsko polje (Bruvno field) one of many karstic Lika highlands fieds. Kremen´s highest part is characterised by a long rocky barrier rising above surrounding forests on southern side of its main mountain ridge. The most of Kremen´s triangular-shaped main ridge is covered with woods, except narrow but elongated meadow (above 1,500 meters altitude) extending from the summit in eastern direction, following the south-eastern part of the ridge and recognizable rocky side, which enables the easiest aproach to the summit from this direction. The highest peaks, all higher than 1,400 m, are situated here (Kremen vrh (Kremen-summit) 1,590 m, Kovaruša 1,469 m and Zvijezda 1,414 m).
From the main mountain ridge more wooded subridges spread in all directions, radiantly:
1. In direction one subridge with two distinctive flanks, the first one with Vijojla peak (1,282 m) and further away to the south, above Bruvno and Mazin fields Šolobanica (1,145 m) peak.
2 To south-west and west of the main ridge, two short spurs spread in direction of Klapavica hamlet on D-1 State road, both semi-encircling the hamlet. These are Vijojla (again the same name, but somewhat lower peak - 996 m) and furher north Anjgiruša (1,076 m).
3. To the north-west of the main ridge runs the longest and the most distinctive subridge, spreading in the same NW-SE direction direction as is that of Kremen´s main ridge and also prevailing direction of wider Kremen area and the Dinaric Alps overall. Beside thick forests present in this area there are also more larger meadows around the highest peaks. Main peaks in this ridge are Vršina (1,378 m) and further to NW the highest Veliko Rteševo (1,390 m) and Malo Rteševo (1,218 m).
3.1. More spurs run from this subridge. These are: a) Ljuti ogradak (1,208 m) and b) Pištalska kosa (1,282 m). At the nort-westernmost end of Kremen, a small cluster of three smaller mountain-tops (Babina glava 1,095, Ivanov vrh 1,094 m and Kosovčov vrh 926 m) rise a bit aside off the main mountain part and they touch the outskirts of the town of Udbina.
4. To the north-east of the main ridge and across Banovo mountain pass and main forest road (Mazin pass-Banovo-Podkuk) spreads another spur with two dominating mountain-tops: Bijeli vrh (1,389 m), Opaljeni vršci (1,315 m). Thee areas are covered with thick forests of Kremen-šuma (Kremen-forest). Northern parts of this spur descent into vast Sarajevo meadow (973 m).
5. Further to the NE of the main ridge and of lower Bijeli vrh-Opaljeni vršci spur there is an elongated depression behind which another ridge, named Javornik (1,282 m) rise.
6. East of Javornik there is one transitional area where Kremen´s ridges and mountain-spurs (spreading from SW to NE in this part) adjoin another group of chained peaks that make "the backbone of Lička Plješivica and run in the massif´s prevailing NW-SE direction for almost 100 kilometers (from Gola Plješivica, over many peaks including Ozeblin all the way to Poštak on its soth-eastern end). Peaks in this area are: Rajčetina kosa (1,265 m), Jankovića vrh (1,248 m), Ilića kosa (1,207 m), Točkova greda (1,147 m) and other.
Another very recognizable detail of Kremen is Ledina, an elongated grassy meadow stretching in east-west direction through Kremen´s forests just underneath southern side of its main rocky ridge. It is a pictoresque, gently inclined, 200 m wide and 1 km long field. Ledina is also known for two water springs that never dry up, both of them in Ledinas´s central part (one of them called Klapavica at 1,420 m – from this spring the water was captivated, collected and conducted to nearby Klapavica hamlet). Ledina is dominated by a long rocky ridge of Kremen´s summit and on the opposite side of its width, by nice views in southern and south-westrn direction; those of Velebit massif especially attractive.
Tables - Major peaks on Kremen mountain
|Name||Height (in meters)||Coordinates-Position|
|1,590 m||44.4666667 N 15.8833333, E Zadar County|