Crescent Flats & Crescent Butte
• This is a huge area spanning Utah & Colorado that contains almost no roads or maintained trails to speak of. Most trekking here is done via bushwhacking or meandering up some wash. For peak-baggers or county high-pointers, this area is a nightmare & a challenge.
Most of the destinations in this area are accessed by foot, occasional Jeep roads or temporary through-fares that energy companies put in for oil and gas wells. I’m a little torn on how to best upload such a large area and I’ve concluded that it would be best to do this in three segments.
The first, which is this page, includes the Book Cliffs at Thompson Springs, running straight north and west to Price, Utah. A second, which will come later, will follow the Book Cliffs from Thompson Springs east to the Utah/Colorado State Line. Then a third segment will detail the “Little Book Cliffs”
from the Colorado State Line east to just north of Grand Junction and perhaps the area north of Cameo.
• After a lot of obscenities and aggravated possibilities/questions, I’ve decided to NOT include all canyons. This after all, would take many years to accomplish and time that I quite frankly, don’t have. As an example, I could use the 96-mile stretch of Desolation/Gray Canyon to illustrate this. There are no less than 48 separate side canyons that run the gamut on both sides of Desolation/Gray Canyons with the whole eastern side under limited accessability due to Indian Reservation.
Does every canyon, butte, mesa, mountain, county highpoint need its own page? Of course not, this would be ridiculous. And I believe this is something that has been addressed in the past here on SP.
But areas of notable features or areas of relative access could probably be included to ‘open up’ an unknown area such as The Book Cliffs and get some (more) information out there. From what I've been able to find thus far has been scant at best. This is an area that has intrigued me every time I go to Moab or the Canyonlands to mountain-bike, off-road or hike as I’m sure it has countless others.
, as the philosopher Holmes Rolston
once described it is, “Raw, spontaneous nature.” In so saying, within the open wilds of eastern Utah and far western Colorado, exists a dry and lonely country. It is scarred by dusty canyons and uplifted finger plateaus that hold dominion over vistas reminiscent of ‘banditos’ and Spaghetti Westerns. These badlands, part of the Colorado Plateau are framed by the Uinta Highlands to the north and Interstate-70 to the south. This predominantly roadless area derives its name from a singular rock stratum that runs the entire course of all 240+ miles of this range. This area is known as The Book Cliffs.
This open labyrinth of canyons, mesas and washes does not carry wilderness designation nor is National Forest entitlement bestowed upon it. With the exception of a few small privately held parcels, 96% of the almost 2.4 million acres that encompasses the Book Cliffs falls under the jurisdiction of the BLM (Bureau of Land Management).
With the exception of a few sites, all of the known areas that harbor petroglyphs and pictographs are not in any ‘protected status’; to say nothing of the sites that await to be cataloged and documented. Since virtually no (permenant) roads traverse this area nor are there reliable resources/facilities, the Book Cliffs are what most people would come to expect of a true primitive area. Finding a trail in this Tamarisk-soaked backcountry can be quite an arduous trial and error search and indeed, most time is spent bushwhacking through scrub-sage, pine and cactus to get anywhere. The canyons are remote and virgin. The plateaus, mesas and mountains do not receive human traffic and the washes are ghost roads.
As said, the Book Cliffs are roughly 240 miles long running west to east. They begin on the Wasatch Plateau (known for mining) in the west near the town of Price and come to a gradual conclusion in the canyons just north of Grand Junction in an area known as, The "Little Book Cliffs”. Some people might even extend that eastern boundary a bit further to include De Beque Canyon
The Roan Cliffs and Hwy 191/40 abut the northern boundary. This open road starts at the town of Duchesne and courses eastward through the Uinta Formation/Mancos Shale and the Mesaverde Group on its way to the town of Vernal and ultimately, the Colorado/Utah state line. I-70 marks the southern boundary. Most of the ~2.4 million acres are part of a main 2,000-v-ft. escarpment and depending on who you talk to, may or may not also include the Tavaputs Plateau
to the north. The 1,000-v-ft. cliff face as seen from interstate-70 (to the north) is actually the longest continuous escarpment in the world
From Vernal (in the north), a few occasional dirt roads wind south into the Tavaputs Plateau, which rises gradually from desert scrub in the Uintah Basin to aspen forests of the higher elevations. Roughly sixty miles later to the south, the plateau ends abruptly at the Roan Cliffs and Book Cliffs. This plateau, usually known only as the Book Cliffs, is a confusing patchwork of federal, state, tribal and private lands. In spite of the political subdivisions, it is a largely unbroken landscape, representing some of the most remote country in the lower 48. Nine years ago, five experienced staffers from the federal Bureau of Land Management and the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources gathered around a campfire on one of those remote acres. Here, they formed & hatched a plan to conserve the unique wilderness and wildlife in the Book Cliffs.
The areas only settlers of any notable habitation were the Fremont People (named for the Fremont River in Capitol Reef National Park) but they disappeared around 1,250AD. No exact reason is known save for educated theories assuming the guise of over-consumption of natural resources, drought and over-population.
When taken as a whole, that is Utah’s northeastern country, the main question to ask yourself would be,
“Why should I visit the Bookcliffs when Moab, The Canyonlands, Arches and Dead Horse Point are only 90 minutes south?”
To start, The Book Cliffs, specifically the Nine Mile Canyon area in the north contains one of the largest concentrations of petroglyphs to be found in the entire Western United States. Doubtless, more sites exist in undocumented canyons waiting to be discovered (the fires that uncovered numerous habituations in the Mesa Verde National Park area 3-4 years ago come quickly to mind)
. But due to the unforgiving terrain, discovery is a slow process.
A second reason to visit is for the isolation and solace felt here. Not even the overlooks at Dead Horse Point or The Needles area can hold a candle to The Book Cliffs (Ok, maybe the Needles area can). One can rest assured that any outing here either by foot or pack animal will be met with a pure, rugged backcountry nostalgia that is completely absent from places like the Canyonlands or Arches. The Book Cliffs are essentially an unspoiled yesteryear of what the desert high plains once was. Trailheads are non-existent and GPS knowledge while in this area is extremely beneficial.
Venerable and serene.
A third reason to visit the Book Cliffs is for the naked geology on display. Unlike the sheer walls, buttresses and pinnacles to the south, splendid and grand to be sure, most of the geologic strata here is accessible. There are 3-4 predominant layers within The Book Cliffs with additional layers in lower lying areas and many more subsequent layers embedded in the chief formations and the terrain is much gentler in terms of topical relief.
Elk, Antelope, Black Bear and Sage and Blue Grouse call this area home. Golden Eagles, Peregrine Falcons and a couple other raptors have also been noted. This area is also known to support occasional populations of Black Footed Ferrets.
Vegetation is sparse and limited to certain plants for a couple of reasons. The soil has a relatively high concentration of selenium in it due to the outlying matrix of rock and that the erosion/evaporation process tends to accumulate dried alkali deposits in the soil. Plants will have a tendency to absorb the selenium, which will result in plant death due to toxicosis leaving behind only those (mainly range vegetation) that can maintain with elevated selenium levels. This will and can of course be transferred to cattle and free-range grazers also resulting in elevated selenium levels; a.k.a. death.
The other reason that this area is selective to certain plant growth is due again, to the morphology of the soil. There is a large concentration of clay that resides within the Mancos Shale stratum. With each passing storm, the clay swells and than contracts as it dries. This makes it difficult for any kind of root system to take hold and establish a network.
So if you can do without paved roads, cities and the modern facilities of the Moab Valley and National Parks then take a few days to explore the Book Cliffs. You’ll be rewarded by sunsets without comparison, a maelstrom of silence and of course, "raw, spontaneous nature."
For the rockhound and geologist alike, Utah is a literal and physical playground. Utah can be divided into three overlapping areas of geologic similarity. To the west are the open ranges and basins of which the Bonneville (salt) racing flats and The Great Western Basin
is part. Running straight down the center of Utah at 80° is the High Country. Here, you’ll find the Wasatch, Zion National Park
and Cedar Breaks
. To the east and south are the mesas, plateaus and monuments. Which includes Escalante, The San Rafael Swell
Utah lies on the western fringes of the North American Plate. This behemoth encompasses an area stretching from the mid-Atlantic Ridge to off the coast of California. Even though Utah is not under the yoke of the Pacific Ring of Fire, Utah has seen its share of mountain building. Through association with these dynamic processes, Utah’s varied topography is chiefly due to compression, uplifts and folding, tension and erosion. Again, Helka Cronic's book is exemplary at defining these processes and illustrating examples.
The Colorado Plateau more or less oval in shape straddles Utah and Colorado and is named not for the state but for the river that courses through it. The Book Cliffs contain folds and faults (of which they’re many types) that are directly and indirectly responsible for the gentle plateaus and wide berthed canyons. Along these faults, rock will fracture from uplifting and subduction
, exposing the multitude of strata and in due time, be either erased from the escarpment or weathered away by the occasional deluge of water from passing storms, subdued into gentle reposes by the wind or further cracked and belittled by the freeze/thaw process. There's no arguing that erosion is nature's perverbial hammer and chisel.
The Colorado Plateau is also known to contain large amounts of oil, natural gas, radium and uranium, tar sand and oil shale can also be found in especially large concentrations. In fact, it is extrapolated that approximately 1.6 trillion barrels of oil reserve exists within the Colorado Plateau. However, 98% of this is locked up within the matrix of shale in a state referred to as Kerogen, a waxy substance. The process of heating the rock up and extracting the oil is an exuberantly expensive process. So until world energy prices dictate otherwise, it will remain in its arid landscape.
Bureau of Land Management site
Consequently, drilling is a bit of a hot-button topic currently within The Book Cliffs. Largely considered as an area of untapped wealth, it is being hotly contested by environmental groups as energy companies pressure BLM authorities to grant drilling and excavating permits. This is actually quite an interesting topic all onto itself as a prime example of politics and consumption of natural resources that is common to the western states, something that I liken as a sister dilemma to the logging exploits of the 70’s and 80’s in the Pacific Northwest. Without delving too much off-topic, all I’ll add about the Colorado Plateau is the following, taken directly
from the “Roadside Geology of Utah”
by Helka Chronic
, a phenominal and informative read.
“Just how the Colorado Plateau fits into the plate
tectonics pattern is hard to say.
As described above, the plateau consists of many individual segments-smaller plateaus and basins that rose and fell relative to each other.
The faults and monoclines broadly speaking, trend north-south. Taken as a whole, The Plateau region seems to
have rotated clockwise to other parts of the continent, a rotation
that may be linked to the northward movement of the Pacific Plate
and the drag that movement exerts on the North American Plate.
But why the Plateau region retains its integrity, like a raft in a stormy
sea of mountain building, has not been satisfactory explained.”
The sedimentary rock found in the Book Cliffs and the Wasatch Plateau in the west range in age from mid-Cretaceous age to early Eocene (100+ million to 53.2 million yrs). The stratum that is evidenced within the Bookcliffs (in ascending order) is the Dakota Sandstone, Mancos Shale, The Mesaverde group (further subdivided into the Castlegate and Price River Sandstone) and ultimately, the North Horn Formation. As one travels from the west to the east (towards Colorado), these layers amalgamate and dissipate; thickness ranges dramatically, especially within Mancos Shale. Even in the Mesaverde Group, Geologists have identified an additional four-seven strata of varying constitutions but still very much, sedimentary. The usual suspects of this geologic composure are Sandstone, Siltstone, Shale and Coal.
With even a little geologic knowledge, based solely on the evidence of the coal, one could correctly assume a marine origin-lake beds, shoreline and past vegetation, peat bogs/marches. Considering paleogeologic patterns, this is indeed true of the large interior sea (Mid-Cretaceous Sea) that at one time existed within the center of North America; commonly referred to as the Western Interior Seaway
. This large body of water would have had its western shoreline abut to the Bookcliffs along present day Interstate-70. The Roan Cliffs located further north would have held tidal lagoons.
The cliffs erode from the side rather than from the top. What this does is expunge the softer material leaving the harder to eventually fall into smaller slabs. This process has caused the Bookcliffs to erode northward away from I-70. Sediment is shifted and carried away down the washes during storms. White deposits of salt and alkali
are left behind as the evaporation process tenaciously removes all trace of moisture.
Erosion within the Book Cliffs, since the terrain is so malleable and pliant would normally be quite rapid if it were not for the complete lack of water. So instead, a placid landscape ensues. Steep slopes when encountered are typically the effect of overgrazing from Ranchers. This prematurely speeds up the erosion process by removing the ground vegetation. I find it amazing that this kind of ‘terra firma’ exists only ~34 miles north of the sheer walls, pinnacles and buttresses of the Canyonlands. Further Reading
Front Escarpment- Eastern Utah by Cameo
The Fremont People
Petroglyphs -Bob Sihler
The Fremont People
are an archaic Native American culture that are in the same vein as the Anasazi
(of Mesa Verde fame), Paiute, Pueblo of Zuni and Hopi. These cultures are known collectively as Puebloans.
These cultures occupied the American Southwest and eat, dressed and lived in similar fashions with respective lineages that are now long dead. The Hopi and Paiute kind of reject the Fremont labeling. Instead, the Paiute refer to their ancestors as 'Wee Noonts
' People who lived the old ways
. The Hopi call their ancestors 'Hisatsinom
' People of long ago
. Regardless of labeling or names, these 'Old People' were skilled masons and builders.
There has been some dissent as to where the Fremont people originated. However, it is generally assumed and accepted that the Great Western Basin located in Nevada and parts of Western Utah is the locus. There is even an occasional opinion that puts thought into the notion that the Fremont immigrated north into Utah from Arizona as a splintered tact from the ancient Mogollon (mountain people) race.
Most higher circles of thought seem to agree that sometime during the 3rd and 4th centuries, drought and over-consumption of natural resources drove the progenitors of the Fremont out of the Great Basin where eventually they would settle in various places in Utah such as the Sevier Basin, along the Fremont River located in Capital Reef National Park
and a bit later on, in the Uinta Highlands and Book Cliffs area. In fact, it is from the Fremont River that we’ve nomenclatured the Fremont People- from known evidence suggesting a separate race/lineage from the indigenous peoples.
The Fremont culture thrived from 550-1275 AD. A historically documented drought that occurred in the middle half of the 13th century would end up spreading the Fremont like thistle upon the wind. Most Fremont lineages would eventually disappear. Some splinter tribes would eventually move further east into areas of Colorado such as The Little Book Cliffs north of Grand Junction and much farther south into the San Luis Valley where they would become integrated by the conquering Spanish and emigrating Mexicans. By 1415 AD the Fremont people had, in a classical definition become extinct; only their art and artifact remained to tell the story of a long forgotten people, conquered by singular demographics and forced into dispersion by the elements.
Despite the uncertainty of Fremont origins, they are contemporaneous with the Mogollon culture of Arizona and New Mexico. Similarities exist between the cultures in terms of diet, food and even pottery. This could even suggest inter-tribe trading or as a stretch, marriages. But nothing of the sort has ever been empirically proven.
There are a few facets that set the Fremont people apart from others in the vicinity.
The first of these is: pottery.
Next to pictographs, Fremont pottery was a telltale sign of a specific group of people. The same culture could be linked from different parts of Utah simply by the style and intricacies of their pottery and clayware. Jugs, cisterns, plates etc. were usually made of the same grayish hue clay. Pieces were almost always thin-walled, smooth and polished with corrugated designs imprinted upon the lip and upper sides, usually pinched.
Weavings were also distinct in that only a singular style was ever used, passed down from generation to generation. This style is called the Rod and Bundle. They would employ the fibers of milkweed, yucca, and sometimes other rigid indigenous plants.
pictographs and petroglyphs are probably the most prevalent characteristic that were left behind. In a style that is referred to as Classic Vernal Style, painted figures were often large with broad shoulders, square or trapezoidal heads often with ear adornments and figures depicted with shields or ‘horns’ are also common.
Footwear was also a bit particular in that deer hock or that of a Mountain Sheep was often woven into the sandal lending it certain sturdiness. This was a huge distinction from the Mogollon.
Keeping in line with what we know of archaic cultures from anthropology, the Fremont were initially hunter-gatherer. This lifestyle lends itself well to nomadic cultures which, given the known environment and topography was probably for the best since resources were scarce (IE: Bedouin nomads of the Sahara).
At some time during the later part of the 9th century, the meager farming methods that were being utilized started to figure more prominently into daily life and eventually changed the Fremont culture into a semi-sedentary one. Since the Fremont preferred canyons or areas with readily available water, such as Desolation Canyon
, The Fremont River Canyon
and Nine Mile Canyon
, these are the areas that exhibit the highest concentration of petroglyphs, pictographs and habitations.
was another linking factor. Diets were typically rich in corn, squash and beans. The camas root, yucca (which also doubled as a medicinal use because of its tendency to relieve inflammation and for soap) and bitterroot
were also eaten. During the later summer months, chokecherry, wolfberries and buck berries were enjoyed. Basically, a typical Fremont individual’s diet consisted of 25%-30% vegetation.
The Fremont preferred the ‘pit-house’
style of accommodation. This form of shelter, which given the extreme temperature variances of the high desert were actually more practical and efficient then their contemporaries who built large stone complexes (Mesa Verde, Chaco Canyon). These naturally temperature controlled pit-houses had a long-term downfall that makes it difficult to study them, they erode easily. However, you can still see past evidence of pit-house construction at several locations:
At Capital Reef National Park follow the Hickman Bridge Trail. After ~3 miles, a couple will be specified and signed as such.
Also, given time, visit the Fremont Indian State Park, which is 24 miles southwest of Richfield and 15 miles east of I-15.
Here, a village named five-finger was discovered in 1983 as I-70 was being constructed through Clear Creek Canyon.
More Fremont Petroglyphs
In the town of Vernal north of the Book Cliffs, there is the Western Heritage Museum. This is a surprisingly well-organized and impressive museum and consequently the largest in the States for Fremont relics and beta.
Admission is free (donations). #435.789.7399
Also just outside of the town of Vernal about 6.4 miles northwest is the McConkie Ranch
. There are several examples of Fremont art and pictographs.
: Images carved into rock.
: Images painted onto rock.
|Mining in the Little Book Cliffs|
Mining is an integral part of the history of the United States. It’s almost necessary to touch on the subject since this industry has its fingers within the Book Cliffs.
The Western United States has seen its share of mines, oil rigs, pollution, fracking and deaths. Fortunes have been made and lost overnight, equipment left forgotten under the hard sun and whole towns have withered away. This has touched almost every state but in particular, California, Nevada and Colorado have reaped the consequences.
In Utah, most of what is mined or has been mined includes: Coal, Gilsonite, Oil, Gold, Natural Gas, Copper, Radium, Uranium and Potash
Since the Book Cliffs are part of the 6,970,000 acres that also includes the larger Uinta Basin, mining might seem a bit trifle compared to a scale this large and primitive. And I suppose in some respects it is. However, factor in tangents like the water table, endangered species and natural resources and the question of whether or not it is trifle becomes a lot more muddied and hard to answer.
Naturally enough, ranchers are going to have a different opinion from Farmers who will likewise have different opinions from Environmentalists or government agencies and even hunters. Then we have outdoor recreationalists who will have different opinions from all the aforementioned. Mining is in some aspects, a necessary problem. It is an industry that, like or not, has always been tied to local economies and public outcry.
The BLM holds a large percentage of the Book Cliffs under its jurisdiction. Within this dominion, as of 2003, there were 323,510 acres that held 400 active leases by no less than 294 separate energy companies. This obviously puts the BLM in an awkward position because on one hand, the BLM has the relatively easy revenue income that these mining leases create and the responsibility of proper land management on the other. Piece by piece, the BLM has either auctioned off or leased tracts within the Book Cliffs and parts of the Uinta Highlands. They’re currently considering allowing as many as 423 new natural gas wells on almost an additional 83,000 acres.
It’s somewhat downtrodden to hear facts and numbers like this but when comparing this to what’s currently happening to the local economy in Garfield County
, Colorado from the recent gas and oil boom, it’s hard to make a stand against drilling/mining when people futures can be bettered by it.
Citing numbers from another 2003 study impact statement conducted by a small collection of private holdings, said interests would require 14-40 new wells per year being serviced by 127 miles of new roads. This is a place (Book Cliffs) that is not typically, “user-friendly”. There are already 64 wells and 139 miles of road in place. In an area that is already officially labeled as “Wilderness Quality” by the BLM, this is a prime example of the dual nature of ethics and economy. I’m not going to draw conclusions or make known my own opinions on this other than put forth the old question of whether or not the means will justify the ends.
Currently, mining in the Book Cliffs has been largely regulated to Oil and Natural Gas. It’s been speculated that this area contains somewhere in the neighbourhood of 1.2-2.4 million barrels of both. With predictions like this, there will undoubtedly be more drilling. For anyone who’s ventured into this ‘no-man’s land’, the terrain is harsh, bone-dry and difficult to navigate. For anyone who’s crossed the San Rafael Swell in Central Utah without the aid of I-70, know this is not an easy undertaking. So again, in some respects, having a few more roads to access the ‘ghost areas’ of the Book Cliffs is nice. Otherwise, it would take an extra few days to reach these backcountry areas. It’s a bittersweet dilemma with no resolution that is going to make either side smile.
Settlers began arriving in Utah in 1847. Most of these people were Mormons looking for an escape from religious persecution. For roughly three years from 1852-1855, coal production in Utah was ramped up and viewed as necessary and important to iron making since it was an easy energy source and in great abundance. From the 1860’s to the late 1880’s, the two major railroads: The Denver/Rio Grande and Union Pacific monopolized most of the coalfields seeing the importance of easy energy and money.
Towns like Springville, Thompson Springs, Sunnyside and Crescent Junction grew overnight as railroad towns directly related to the production of coal. The field plateaued in 1920 during WWI and saw another rise during WWII. Since then, things have stabilized and gradually fallen due to the discovery of oil and natural gas. The coal industry saw another spike during the 1980’s followed by another financial plateau during the 1990’s when things again, started a gradual slide as the Wasatch Plateau and the Book Cliffs regions came to maturity.
As insane as it sounds, maps of underground coalmines didn’t start to materialize until the late 1870’s and it wasn’t until the 1940’s, that maps became required for all existing and new mines.
Utah has roughly 4% of its land underlain by coalfields and currently produces 2.4% of the nation’s coal, much of this being in the Book Cliffs and Uinta area. Of this, only .024% lies on the ground or within four feet of the surface. 25.2% lies underneath at depths greater than four feet. This ranks Utah as the #13 highest in coal production behind states like Montana and Colorado. The chief difference between standard coal and oil shale is that coal contains a larger percentage (sometimes significantly) of organic matter.
|Coal Stratum||Crescent Mine|
Something that the Book Cliffs have an abundance of...is Oil Shale. Fact, recent estimates of Oil Shale
puts the abundance into the billions of barrels
. However, the catch is in the processing of it. Processing oil shale into a useable hydrocarbon is not entirely energy-effective and still expensive.
In short, oil shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock that typically contains varying amounts of kerogen. From the processing of kerogen, liquid hydrocarbons can be extracted and ultimately used as fuel.
A 2008 estimate set the total world resources of oil shale at 689 gigatons — roughly equivalent to a yield of 4.8 trillion barrels (760 billion cubic metres)
of shale oil, with the largest reserves in the United States, which is thought to have 3.7 trillion barrels (590 billion cubic metres)
, though only a part of this is recoverable.
The chief difference between coal and oil shale is that coal has a larger percentage of organic matter
and oil shale has a larger percentage of minerals
and at that, a highly flux composition depending on where its found. For this reason, it’s difficult to assign a chemical formula to oil shale or to even geologically define it. The types of minerals present aren’t uniform nor are the ratio compositions standard. Even the mining location has a large factor in what goes into the matrix such as the amount of organic matter present and the types and quality of kerogen trapped in the matrix of rock. The general accepted classification is that oil shale is typically labeled as terrestrial, lacustrine (lake-bottom deposited) or marine (ocean).
|Looking across the front escarpment|
Oil Shale has always figured itself into human history. It will generally burn without processing & byproducts such as kerosene, lamp oil and paraffin are extracts. Oil Shale processing has never, despite the associated costs, gone away. World petroleum prices have always dictated the development in this industry. In 2003, the US restarted an old program that was temporarily shelved due to world oil prices. This revisiting is being spearheaded by the Shell Oil Co.
So if world deposits are what they are and countries are sitting on what’s potentially hundreds of millions of barrels of unrefined oil, why are prices so high to process it?
There are two main methods of processing.
The first is underground processing & mining
. This is being seen as the most efficient way of processing and there are multiple methods being used to bring the price of extraction down. From what I have read, all the possibilities utilizing this method are complicated and relatively still under development. There are many patents still pending and the chemical process isn’t easy to follow or understand.
The second method, which I’ll touch on is above ground processing
. In a chemical process called, pyrolysis, the kerogen in the shale is converted into a synthetic crude oil and shale gas. This is frequently done by heating the shale in the absence of oxygen to a temperature at which the kerogen is disassociated into a gas, condensable oil and a solid residue. The temperature at which this happens is between 842°F (450°C) and 935°F (501°C).
According to a survey conducted by the RAND CORPORATION, the cost of producing a barrel of oil in the United States by using a ‘standard’ extraction process will range between $70-$95. This estimate is wide in margin and hard to point with accuracy because of unknowns such as kerogen quality, matrix composition and extraction efficacy. With oil prices always in flux, the practicality of pursuing this course remains questionable.
However, if past prices dictate future prices, this eventually will become a viable option.
The Western United States (Colorado, Utah, Wyoming) contains an underground lake bed spanning almost 17,000 sq/miles. Shell Oil is aggressively pursuing this industry and area for development. Estimates put this area to contain at least 800 billion barrels of recoverable oil. This is roughly triple the reserves of Saudi Arabia.
A recent 2007 DOE study contends that the Colorado Plateau can sustain 2 million barrels a day by 2020 and upwards of 3 million by 2040 with the possibility of 5 million barrels a day with multiple company’s mining/processing. At this level, western oil shale fields would rival the largest oilfields in Saudi Arabia and (or) the Middle East.
Uranium, the "wonder mineral" had slowly become a giant in the 1950’s compared to the slow obsession from earlier days. The quest for uranium and accompanying natural minerals has historical roots in Southern Utah and Colorado. The industry in the late 1950’s and 1960’s actually depended upon prior experience in the fields of prospecting, mining, and processing. The earliest users of uranium ore in Utah were Native Americans who used it for paints (hard to believe!). Initial Utah uranium mining began in the 1870’s and 1880’s on a small scale. Processed ore was shipped to France and Germany in the mid-1880’s for use in the forming of salts and oxides as colorants for ceramics and dyes, in the manufacture of glass and pottery, and as aids in photography and steel plating. By 1898 radium had been successfully isolated from uranium and carnotite had been found and identified. Eventually, radium became known as the "wonder drug" and usurped most of the importance away from uranium.
The eastern and southeastern regions near the basins of the Green, Grand, and Colorado Rivers in Utah contain small and isolated deposits of uranium. In 1898 the Welsh-Lofftus Uranium and Rare Metals Company, which operated in Richardson (Grand County), discovered the San Rafael deposits. These were found about fifteen miles southwest of Green River and in 1904 ore was located in Wayne County, southeast of the San Rafael Swell. Other areas where uranium was found were west of the La Sal Mountains, south of Richardson, at Mill Creek, north of Moab, at Cold Creek (twenty miles north of Price), and at Temple Mountain (near Goblin's valley SP)
Market demands grew for vanadium
and radium, which are both found in uranium. By 1906 nearly 200 tons of uranium were mined annually in Colorado and Utah. World War I sharpened the demand as vanadium was found to be an efficient steel-hardening agent and radium as an illumination agent for watch faces, compasses, gunsights, and airplane dials.
Nearly all the known deposits were located in the United States and the market demand stayed fairly strong.
War and mineral prices affected and altered Utah's uranium industry. Production slowed during the 1921-23 depression. Of more permanent significance were the rich ore finds of radium in the Belgian Congo in 1923 and of vanadium in Peru. Because of the strength of these mining fields, these countries came to dominate the market. Between 1923 and 1940 the production of uranium in Utah and the West proved negligible and slowed to a trickle. On a global scale, Utah took a backseat to Colorado in terms of uranium exploration. Think of the Colorado town, Uravan (URA
- uranium, VAN
-vanadium). Though compared to elsewhere at a time when the US was practically the only source of these radioactive materials, the numbers were financially huge.
However, during the Cold War from the 1950’s and 1960’s, uranium again reigned as a wonder metal. Charles (Charlie) Steen reigned as the most well known of the uranium bonanza kings. His home in Moab exemplified this newfound wealth; but Steen's fortunes were also tied to the mining industry and ultimately affected by the economic downturns of the industry.
Another lesser known but equally important mineral in Utah's mining history is Gilsonite. This substance is lightweight, glossy black, bituminous and of asphaltite quality. This was the primary hydrocarbon mined in Utah. Its raw form is very brittle and can be smashed and ground quite easily and has the appearance of obsidian. It has been mined commercially only in northeastern Utah, where it occurs south of Vernal and Roosevelt in parallel vertical veins that cut across the Uinta Basin. It is believed to be a solid residue of petroleum, and was initially named uintaite in 1885 by W.P. Blako. The mineral was later named in honor of Samuel H. Gilson, a businessman from Salt Lake City who brought it into prominence for commercial uses such as in paints and varnishes and in other building products.
Gilsonite has been produced since the 1880’s and in 1886, Gilson, Burt Seaboldt, and others filed claims. Seaboldt, the most inquisitive of the trio, experimented with the substance and observed that it was resistant to acids and moisture. He succeeded in having his mining claims removed from the Uintah Reservation. In 1888 the Gilsonite Manufacturing Company was organized and formed in Salt Lake City. Reportedly, at that time some 3,000 tons of Gilsonite were shipped to Price and sold for $80.00 a ton. In 1889 the company sold out to the Gilson Asphaltum Company of Missouri and by 1900, the Gilson Asphaltum Company of New Jersey had acquired the property.
As with metals and coal mining, efficient transportation proved necessary to the commercial development of Gilsonite. The Barber Asphalt Paving Company began the Uintah Railway Company in 1903. The General Asphalt Company owned the Barber Company, which was itself owned by the Gilson Asphaltum Company. In 1902 the Barber Company began the development of the Black Dragon vein and in 1904 the Uintah Railway completed its fifty-three-mile narrow-gauge railroad to the mines. The line ran across the Book Cliffs from Dragon, Utah to Mack, Colorado where it connected with the Denver and Rio Grande Western main line.
Wagon freighting costs in 1900 were reported to be from $10.00 to $15.00 per ton to carry the ore to the railhead with rail costs at $10.00 per ton to Chicago or St. Louis. In 1911, the railway was extended to Watson, then four miles southwest to the Gilsonite mine at Rainbow. A wagon road called the Uintah Toll Road was eventually built to carry freight and passengers over the sixty miles between Vernal, Fort Duchesne, and Dragon.
Mining the vertical fissures of Gilsonite was difficult, as the veins were often quite narrow, most of the time only a few feet across.
Pick and shovel were the most useful mining tools. Ore would then be hoisted from the shafts. In the early days, veins were worked on a rising slope to permit the ore to roll back down the slope. When a sufficient amount had been loosened, the mineral would be loaded by hand into a burlap bag holding about 200 pounds. This method limited the depth of these operations to about 100 feet.
Uintah and Duchesne counties produced the principal Gilsonite mines--Dragon, Rainbow, Watson, Little Emma, Bonanza, and Little Bonanza were among them. In Duchesne County, the Parriette Mine (closed in 1900 because of an explosion)
was located near Parriette Bench. In 1935 the main operation had been moved to Bonanza and ore was trucked to Craig, Colorado. This resulted in the eventual abandonment of the Uintah Railway.
What is Gilsonite? -Ziegler Chemical & Mineral Corporation
Book Cliffs-Uinta Basin/"Oil & Gas Leases" -Who owns the West?
Flora & Fauna
At an average elevation of 6,600ft, the Book Cliffs of Utah and Colorado inhabit the category of the High Plains. Unlike ‘Canyon Country’ to the south, the Book Cliffs aren't particularly known for deep gorges or canyons but, they are intersected by a few canyons of their own such as, Desolation Canyon and Nine Mile Canyon. Terra Firma is of a more varied composition with unequal measures of desert steppe, high plateau, eroded washes and dry canyon. This is a place that I often think about when reading Stephen King’s opus, “The Dark Tower”
as what things might look like, “after the world has moved on”
. The change in topography also brings with it slightly different populations of flora and fauna.
In this empty Northeastern pocket of Utah, common animals that are frequently sighted are Mule Deer, Antelope, Elk, armies of squirrels and rabbits and to a lesser degree, Bighorn Sheep. Those that are less sighted and harder to glimpse include bear, Mountain Lion, Blue and Sage Grouse, Peregrine Falcons and Bald Eagles. At last estimate there was about 375 species of vertebrates residing in the Book Cliffs and surrounding areas.
In November of 2007, a plan was initiated by the Utah Wildlife Board with the cooperation of the Division of Wildlife Resources (DWR), The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), private ranchers, The Nature Conservancy and the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation to reintroduce about 45 bison
into archaic native habitat within the Uinta Basin and Book Cliffs. The initiation schedule of January 2008 had been pushed back and delayed due to abnormally heavy snowfall and a revised, more comprehensive plan for disease testing (Brucellosis) since the area of release is sensitive. As of late August, early September, 13 bison were successfully released into the Book Cliffs region (one was gored to death during transport). There are another 30 animals ready to be released later in September, possibly early October 2008 to create a sustainable population pending the efficiency of tagging and disease testing. The animals were rounded up with the help of the Ute Indian Tribe.
Trees, bushes and plants are the clothing and adornments of the earth. Within places like the Book Cliffs, the topography resembles a 'down-and-out whisky soaked beggar.' The Forest Service has good reason to preach, “Tread lightly”. Existence is tough for vegetation and unfortunately, there has been a noted rate of non-native plant species moving into the Book Cliffs area. Native tree’s and plants such as the White Rive Penstemon, Pinon & Juniper trees, Indian Ricegrass, Big Basin Sagebrush and Buckwheat are now competing for valuable resources of water and nutrients from invading noxious plants.
Typically, what happens in a case of introduction of a non-native plant species, is the new plant IE: (Russian Olive)
will spread uncontrolled due to a lack of insect control specific to the invader, mineral or nutrient concentrations in the soil that benefit the invader due to intrinsic reasons specific to morphology and (or) a lack of animal species that negatively effects the newcomer.
The Salt Cedar
is a good example of a species that is hard to kill. This tree thrives in low-lying areas and around concentrations of water or moisture. It readily absorbs water, has an entangled and dense root system and is highly hermetic against elevated levels of minerals (alkalines, salts, selenium) that would otherwise retard growth in normal indigenous flora.
The Russian Knapweed and Russian Olive are also hardy plants with little benefit (nutritional) to indigenous wildlife. The Yellow Starthistle, African Rue and the Black Henbane are also examples.
Another extenuating factor of non-native flora deals with the process of interspersion.
Claret Cup Cactus
What this means is that in a regularly functioning ecosystem, the total diversity of life is a direct function and result of the species that occupy specific niches and places within that ecosystem. So when a change is introduced in the form of invading animal or plant species, pollutants or meteorological stresses, basically any outside xenomorphic condition, the ecosystem must learn to change to adapt this new stress/variable or components within the system will fail, falling victim to competition.
To better illustrate this, take for example the over-grazing of cattle. In arid lands, of which this is a current dilemma within the Book Cliffs, this practice can and does lead directly to higher erosion rates. This means the topsoil is now open to increased winds and rain, which eventually will be carried off. Plants trying to carve a spot to grow will have a harder time digging down for purchase. This in turn limits plant growth and directly affects the native wildlife that eats certain plants for sustenance. It however, doesn’t stop there. With fewer floras on the ground, mineral concentrations are allowed to escalate because to a certain degree, all plant life incorporate and absorb a certain amount of toxins/chemicals and minerals as a normal/routine part of growth.
These naturally existing minerals can reach prohibitive levels that keep new plant growth minimal or outright stop it. Elevated selenium in the soil in certain parts of these areas is a current problem with its roots in cattle over-grazing.
The Russian Olive is an example of a species that can adapt to these changes in organic soil chemistry and exploit it. This tree offers little to no value to the wildlife in terms of nutritional benefit except as a safe haven from predators. While offering a moments solace from being hunted, at the same time it drives the same animals further and farther in search of food. This is an example of interspersion being reduced. This is certainly not a monopolized problem by any one area. You could also look at the mongoose/snake dilemma, Gypsy Moth problem, Giant (Cane) Toad in Florida and on a larger but hidden scale, white man and Native American Buffalo.
In every scenario, the cause and effect is essentially the same. However, in areas like the desert/high plains, where the bio-diversity is low to begin with, the effect becomes that much more pronounced and visible.
|Mule Deer||Golden Eagles||Tamerisk||Scorpion|
|Elk||Blue Grouse||Salt Cedar||Horny Toad|
|Black Bear||Sage Grouse||Russian Knapweed||Desert Toad|
|Coyote||Peregrin Falcon||Russian Olive||Rattlesnake|
|Antelope||Spotted Owl||Prickly Pear Cactus||Garter Snake|
|3-lined Ground Squirrl||Red Tailed Hawk||Yellow Starthistle|
|Mountain Lion||Western Screech Owl||African Rue|
|Bighorn Sheep||Gamble's Quail||Yucca|
Utah Division of Wildlife Resources1596 W. North Temple Salt Lake City, UT 84116
Ouray National Wildlife Refuge
This 12,469acre refuge was established in 1961 and is currently owned and supervised by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. There is an information kiosk and pamphlets are available to the prospective wildlife and riparian inhabitants. Information for a self-guided car-tour is also available. Most of the terrain that encompasses the refuge is situated around 10-12 miles of the Green River so bird watching is excellent. Bald Eagles frequent the area in early winter.Open sunrise to sunset year round.
Ouray National Wildlife Refuge
266 W. 100N
Vernal, UT 84078
Quadrangles along the Book CliffsThis is a general list of the state of Utah.
It is broken down into typical, square quadrangles that the USGS and BLM uses to navigate, point and plot and map existing land.
It is also a useful resource for 'peakbaggers' to keep track of what points, peaks and mountains have been climbed or scrambled.
It may be an over-the-top way for purists to take the whole 'peak bagging thing' to the extreme but there is no doubt that it does provide an avenue for people to see parts of their state that they would ordinarily ignore. Plus, it's an easy way to size down an absolutely huge area into smaller, more manageable segments.
Utah- Quadrangles List
Search Utah's peaks and points
What is a USGS Quadrangle?
In Defense of the Wild Places
Utah Sunset -Liba Kopakova Strictly Opinion.... Trying to explain to an audience that frequents the outdoors, the embroidery of open space policies & responsible land management, I’d be, more or less, preaching to the choir. The wild places, as it were, have always figured prominently into the human world whether it is physically or mentally, in literature or guidebooks or expressed via cinema.
From the Brother’s Grimm, Little Red Riding Hood (and indeed, it would seem most of Bavaria), the barren wasteland where Jesus was first tempted by Lucifer in the desert to the ‘Desert of the Real’ in the Matrix, these places can be viewed as (Jungian) psycopomps for what is dark, unknown, dangerous and possibly even evil. The archetype is largely the same.
To some degree this is still true, even in the 21st century. However, with the dawning of the age of information (mid-1950’s), our reliance on superstition and the chimerical has been largely abandoned. We’ve replaced it with intelligent curiosity, secondhand exploration and the ever popular, development. This frame of mind is a very healthy thing, to be sure. However, even this innocent enclave has contempt built into it if we forget to look in the rear-view mirror.
This segues into man’s dominance over nature. It’s not a forced concept. It’s a natural state of progression. Think of the historical context of how St. Petersburg (“The City of Bones”) was built. So if we’re capable of manipulating the environment to a degree as large as this, what happens to the wild places? They might not become prime real estate but they certainly become viable options for development, drilling, bombing exercises or just plain dumping grounds.
Looking at this from a literary mind, we’re destroying the places that make us afraid. We’re domesticating ideals, the same beliefs and axioms that are responsible for our folklore and wives tales. Who needs archetypes and fairy tales when you have contract deadlines and ‘TPS reports’ to worry about?
The antithesis to these unkempt places of course, is national, state and city parks. I have absolutely nothing against National Parks, well-manicured City Parks, or even informational signage along footpaths. But I highly doubt this is what constitutes peoples’ ideas of wilderness. Setting foot in the Weimuneche Wilderness in Southern Colorado or venturing into the heart of Iceland past Gullfoss Waterfall will give you a solid idea of what wilderness is!
The whole purpose of having these protected areas is to preserve swaths of astounding beauty and resources for current and future generations, is it not?
Places like Yellowstone and Denali National Park come immediately to mind. When I see or come across places like the Colorado Plateau that are officially recognized by offices such as the BLM, yet allow drilling and other activities, it really makes me wonder who exactly dictates and decides what is considered beautiful.
Wild places, tracts without human intervention are necessary for our wildlife. We’ve already altered historical land use areas for wildlife because of poaching, logging, contamination and human infringement so much over the last 325+ years; we’re now forced into the position of wildlife and land managers. Species like the River Otter, Wolverine and Lynx are now either endangered or simply aren’t seen in Colorado anymore. The disappearance of Gray Wolves has lead to an explosion of Elk and resurgence of Chronic Wasting Disease. By depleting or changing one factor, another factor takes an unnatural advantage.
“It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change.”
When change is introduced into a system whether it is on a mammalian scale or on a microbial scale, all manner of animals have the possibility of becoming an opportunistic species.
The scope and consequences are not always immediately apparent. Everything in an ecological system is intertwined in one fashion or another. Humans seem to be the only exception. Cities are our ecological system- a synthetic & concrete system that is not always at peace with the area around it, nor does it need to be. Rousseau stated in his ‘Reveries’ that man’s natural state is one of isolation and self-dependency, that man is happier in a system where he is alone. Our collective need for wilderness or our desire to be ‘alone’ would certainly illustrate this if it weren’t for the observation that people need society to create and procreate and to fundamentally, share. We’re changing the world from an ‘exotic oyster’ to an old, overused playground set. How can we be at peace with the environment when we define ourselves primarily via comparisons? That leaves the door wide-open to ambiguity and exponentiation.
A high plains wash
We need wild places to keep our spirit of exploration alive. It’s no accident that people like Ernest Shakelton or George Mallory are considered by many to be heroes. Places like Greenland or the Congo keep our collective imaginations alive and well and Sumatra is known only as a place that grows great coffee! Programmes like “Destination Truth” and “In search of…” (I think I just dated myself on that one!) though overly sensational and ostentatious do serve a good and higher purpose.
It’s hard to argue with that drunken feeling of excitement, the thrill of being someplace that’s potentially dangerous and walking out the better for it. This is a facet that I believe goes into the subjective equation of why people climb and trek.
Without the wilderness, these learned skills are nothing more than a navigational equivalent of Abercrombie & Fitch.
Although I’m often shocked at how many people are completely ignorant of some very basic (Newtonian) laws, “Every action (or motion) has a complete and opposite reaction.” Though it may have a mathematical heart, I believe this statement is not monopolized by physics or dynamics.
I don’t think anyone will argue (too loudly) that preservationists have nothing but good intentions in mind when they’re out there ‘spreading the word’. The catch-22 I see with defining what preservation is is not in the definition itself but that it seems so open & exposed to interpretation. This is religion’s fatal flaw and I’m not even about to go there!
My thoughts for keeping something undeveloped or unfenced might resemble someone else’s opinion but they may not share the fundamentals. This is a huge stumbling block because at this level, disagreements are exponentially made worse; the Two Elk Fire on Vail Mountain comes immediately to mind.
Future generations, whether they know it or not, are dependent on what we in this generation leave for them.
I think it would be good karma to leave them something a little ‘rough’ around the edges.
Sooner or later, the entire globe will be charted, poked & prodded and lacerated with roads.
But there’s no need to rush it.
Resources for Additional Information
"Roadside Geology of Utah" Halka Chronic
Utah Road Atlas
Back of Beyond Bookstore (Moab, Utah)
Lists of John
BLM- Book Cliffs Region
View Larger Map
|SP Member- Brian Crim
||Sword of Damocles-FA Paul Ross
|Scott's son, Kessler
||Bang & Blame -Bang's Canyon
||Choss Master 5.11a