The Alaska Coast Range is huge, so I made this page to organize all of the Juneau area peaks in one place. I'll define the Juneau Area to be approximately from the Taku Inlet up the coast to the the Gilkey Trench and across the icefield to the Canadian border, along with Douglas Island, Northern Admiralty Island, and the Southern Chilkat range.
The following is by no means a complete list, but represents the most popular and/or accessible peaks in the area (*unofficial name):
You can camp pretty much anywhere. It's mostly national forest, you only really need to worry about private property if your close to sea level.
None, unless your route crosses the Canadian border.