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Krasna Massif

Krasna Massif

Krasna Massif

Page Type: Area/Range

Location: Ukraine, Europe

Lat/Lon: 48.35659°N / 23.78933°E

Object Title: Krasna Massif

Activities: Hiking

Season: Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter

Elevation: 5131 ft / 1564 m


Page By: LukZem

Created/Edited: Jul 31, 2011 / Jun 1, 2016

Object ID: 733830

Hits: 3796 

Page Score: 86.85%  - 23 Votes 

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Полонина КРАСНА

Kraszna - havas (HU)

Polonina Krásna (ČS)

Połonina Krasna (PL)

Polonyna Krasna, literally Beautiful (in Polish also Red, via an unfortunate translation) was the most beautiful mountain pasture of Subcarpathian Ruthenia (nowadays Transcarpathia) during the interwar period. It belongs to the Northeastern Carpathians and its main ridge is about 35 km long. The western boundary of this complicated massif is formed by the Tereblya River, which separates it from Polonyna Borzhava. Its eastern limit is the Teresva River, separating the Krasna from the Svydovets. On the north Polonyna Krasna is bounded by the Mokryanka River and its tributary the Pryslop, separating the Krasna from the Gorgany. The southern limits are not clear-cut because the relatively low mountain landscapes are densely fragmented by the hydrographic net with the Uholka and the Luzhanka being its most significant rivers.

Avalanche-prone slope
Springtime on Krasna

The southern part of the massif is made of the Marmarosh sediments. Karst formations, e.g. caves Druzhba (Friendship) or Molochnyi Kamin (Milk Stone) and Stone Bridge are also associated with this remote area. A peculiar feature of the relief is the presence of rocky strands with cliff formations.

There are 5 important summits in the Krasna Massif:

1 564
The highest peak, situated in the central part.
1 548
The second highest summit with a transmitter on its top, in the western part.
1 501
Rising in the southern spur outside the main ridge, rarely visited.
1 495
Situated in the central part (3 km SE of Syhlianskyi)
1 492
Located in the eastern part.

Movie created by LukZem during his four visits to the Krasna massif

Uholka-Shyrokyi Luh virgin beech forest

The largest virgin beech forest in Europe with a total area of more than 10 000 ha grows on the slopes of the Krasna massif. This hidden treasure can be deservedly called a pearl of the Carpathians. Protected since 1920, this core of the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve is the most valuable asset of Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians - an international UNESCO's World Natural Heritage site. While the virgin forest of Uholka covers the southern and eastern slopes of Menchul, the virgin forest of Shyrokyi Luh, adjacent to Uholka, stretches over the southern and western parts of Krasna. Purely beech woodland, growing in optimal conditions, prevails. It is no accident that the tallest beech specimens in the world, which reach an incredible height of 55 meters, can be found in Uholka. No noise, no pollution here - many tranquil spots instead, including plenty of "first-class wilderness".

A very special feature of Uholka is the presence of numerous limestone cliffs and karst caves. "Druzhba" (Friendship) Cave is the largest in the Ukrainian Carpathians. The milky colouring is what gave its name to "Molochnyi kamin" (Milk Rock) Cave. However, Uholka's main landmark is the Karst Bridge - a natural rock arch created through karst-forming processes.
Karst arch Karst arch
Natural fractal Fern species
Milk Stone cave Molochnyi kamin

Movie created by LukZem during his four visits to the Uholka-Shyrokyi Luh massif

Getting there

Uholka virgin beech forest is accessible from Mala Uholka and Velyka Uholka villages respectivelly, which can be reached by bus from Tyachiv (approx.departures: 12:00 a.m., 3:00 p.m., 5:00 p.m. - only on workdays). Private buses and taxis depart from Koshuta Street 90, opposite the orthodox church. Tyachiv is accessible by train or by bus from Uzhorod.

Shyrokyi Luh virgin forest is accessible from Shyrokyi Luh village by bus from Tyachiv.

The table shows access to Polonyna Krasna.

Closest AirportsBorder-crossing pointRoadsPoint of access
Vyšné Nemecké/Uzhorod
E58, H09, T0728
Ust Chorna
E471, H10, P21, T0720
E573, E58, H09, T0720
Sighetu Marmatiei/Solotvino
H09, T0728
Ust Chorna

Hiking trails

The Mala Uholka hiking circular trail leads through primeval beech forests passing by Druzhba cave and rocky limestone belt called "Hrebin" with Chur lookout on the way up to the Karst Bridge. The trail is about 5 km long with 500 m elevation gain. The best time to visit is from April to October. The trail begins at the office of the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve in Mala Uholka village (Kicherely by the locals).

Lilium martagon Martagon lily
Roe deer in the virgin beech forest Deer in the virgin forest
Polonyna Manchul Vast virgin beech woodland

The Velyka Uholka hiking trail is about 4.5 km long with a 400 m elevation gain. The trail begins at the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve's checkpoint in Uholka, which is situated 5 km north of the Velyka Uholka village. On the highest point of this circular route there is the karst cave "Molochnyi Kamin" (literally Milk Stone). Several hundred meters downhill you will catch a first glimpse of a lonely rockface Velyka Kopytsya (literally Big Haystack) which is 70 m high. The only way to get to the summit is a narrow path on the western slope. It is worth to climb as there is a marvellous view over the whole area covered by the canopy of virgin beech forest.

Paradise of wild nature Paradise of wild nature
Telekia speciosa Telekia speciosa
Fairy path Fairy path

Shyrokyi Luh virgin forest is accessible via unmarked path leading along the right bank of Luzhanka river.

Polonyna Krasna is accessible via red striped hiking trail connecting Ust Chorna with Kolochava.

Red Tape

Glory of autumn morning Autumn glory
Since Uholka-Shyrokyi Luh virgin forest forms the phytocoenotic core of the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve, there are some restrictions. Below is the list of activities, which are forbidden.
  • leave hiking trails
  • make fire outside fireplace
  • damage trees and bushes
  • touch flowers
  • eat forest fruits
  • disturb wildlife
  • make noise
Carpathian fox Carpathian fox
Ural owl Ural owl
Carpathian blue slug
 <i>(Bielzia coerulans)<i> Carpathian blue slug

To visit Uholka's virgin forests you need a ticket (25 UAH), which can be bought at the local CBR office in Kitcherely (Mala Uholka) situated in the upper end of this village. Another option is via CBR office in Velyka Uholka situated in the upper end of this village about 5 km from the bus stop. To visit Shyrokyi Luh virgin forest you have to reach CBR office in Posych situated about 10 km north of Shyrokyi Luh village.

Spring snow Spring snow
...in the virgin beech forest ...in the virgin beech forest
Broken-off tree stem Broken-off tree stem

Polonyna Krasna is not included in the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve so it means, there are no limits dealing with camping, fireplace etc...

Movie created by LukZem during his four visits to the Uholka virgin beech forest

Maps & nature guide

  • Online map

  • Online paper 1:50,000

  • paper 1:50,000 by Carpathian paths - names in Ukrainian, Polish and Czech,

  • paper 1:50,000 - names in Ukrainian, Polish and Czech, available from COMPASS

  • paper 1:50,000 - names in Ukrainian, Polish and Czech, available from KIWICK

  • Nature guide to the largest virgin beech forest of Europe

    Mighty beech trees Mighty beech trees
    Massif of Krasna Krasna massif
    Spring green canopy Spring green

    Movie created by LukZem during his three visits to the Shyrokyi Luh virgin beech forest


    Romantic dream
    The best accommodation

    It is possible to stay overnight at the local Carpathian Biosphere Reserve office in Kitcherely (Mala Uholka). Please contact the CBR headquarters in Rakhiv, before your arrival:

    Carpathian Biosphere Reserve

    Krasne Pleso Street 77, P.O.Box-8

    UA-90600 Rakhiv, Ukraine

    Tel.:+38 0313 22 21 93


    Weather & Rescue Service

    Shyrokyi Luh weather forecast

    Mountain rescue service

    Name of MRSAddressTelefon/e-mailMobile phone
    Uzhorod, Verescahina 18, 88006
    (+38 0312) 671 413 zak.resque@tn.uz.ua
    (+38 097) 585 6685
    Ust Chorna
    Podhorna 5, turbaza "Jalinka", 90520
    (+38 03134) 361 83
    (+38 097) 933 1976

    Duty officer of Ministry of Emergency - (+38 0321) 660 701, 660 114 or (+38 0442) 473 103

    Emergency numbers of rescue services - 101 (only from UA operators)

    Spring crocusses <i>(Crocus heuffelianus)<i> Spring crocuses
    Colours of autumn canopy Colours of autumn
    Icicles of the stone bridge Winter icicles

    External links

    Peaceful landscape Lovely
    Extraordinary beech tree Extraordinary

    Animated Snapshots

    The best shots of LukZem taken during his four visits to the Krasna massif


    Spring crocusRomantic dreamIcicles of the Karst BridgeJewel of natureAvalanche-prone slopeTopas summit (1548m)Syhlianskyi (1564m) and Gropa (1495m)
    Polonyna Menchul (1501m)Milk Rock CaveLuzhanka river valleySyhlianskyi (1564m)Krasna massifTurning coloursMenchul (1501 m)
    [ View Gallery - 40 More Images ]