Page Type Page Type: Area/Range
Location Lat/Lon: 49.16280°N / 20.12071°E
Activities Activities: Hiking, Mountaineering, Trad Climbing, Bouldering, Ice Climbing, Via Ferrata, Skiing
Seasons Season: Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter
Additional Information Elevation: 8711 ft / 2655 m
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Karpaty - Carpaţi - Kárpátok - Карпати - Karpaten
The Carpathians and their neighborsThe Big Five - parts of the Carpathians we have distinguished. The neighbors are the Alps to the West, Dinarides (SW – across Great Hungarian Plain), Balkan Mountains (S), Sudetes (NW).
Rhododendron kotschyi Token flower

The Carpathian Mountains constitute one of Europe's main mountain systems, whose characteristic arc spans some 1,500 km across, separating the Carpathian Basin from the vast lowlands of Eastern Europe. At both ends, it is cut off from the neighboring mountains – the Alps in the west, and the Stara Planina/Balkan Mountains in the south – by the Danube River, although in geologic terms the Carpathians extend a bit beyond the Danube (for further discussion please see the SW chapter).

The Carpathians Mountains run across the political borders between half a dozen countries, which are Czechia, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Ukraine and Romania. Bearing in mind the sheer size of the Carpathians, we are not going to provide much information about their particular ranges. Our objective is to give a concise overview - detailed information is expected of the child pages. Relevant SP pages (varying widely in quality) have been attached, the most important ranges that do not have a page yet have been highlighted in bold print in the tables. We hope our page can provide good information as well as setting an example of transcarpathian collaboration between SP'ers who love the Carpathians as much as we do.

Geology and Physiography

Geological map of the Carpathians Map from 1922

We have split the Carpathians into the following five parts: the Northwestern, Northeastern, Eastern (Northeastern and Eastern Carpathians are usually classified as one region named the East Carpathians), Southern and Southwestern Carpathians. This breakdown is generally based on the works of Hungarian geologists and geographers, and differs markedly from the physiographic divisions of the Carpathians usually drawn, for example, in Poland.   

The Carpathians are typically composed of three lithologic belts: the outer flysch belt (of relatively hard sandstone and soft shale), which can be broad but is rather low except the Chornohora (the apex of the Northeastern Carpathians, which tops out at 2061 m); the central crystalline (i.e. metamorphic/granitoid) belt, which contains nearly all of the highest ranges (the Tatras in the north and four ranges in the south exceed 2500 m in elevation); and the inner volcanic belt (rather low, like the flysch belt, except the Călimani Mountains, which rise above 2100 m). This pattern is best displayed in the Northwestern Carpathians, and also in the Eastern Carpathians. The crystalline chain is very poorly exposed in the relatively low Northeastern Carpathians (only several crystalline massifs of the Marmarosh Mountains break through the sedimentary cover). Also, the make-up of the Southern Carpathians, which are almost exclusively composed of crystalline blocks, is different. 

Obidza Waterfall
Inside flysch belt

Within the Carpathians, the eastern sibling of the Alps, there are many blocks whose rocks were (trans-)formed by orogenic cycles older than the Alpine orogeny. Some of those blocks, e.g. the Rodnei Mountains constitute well-preserved pre-Mesozoic orogens, i.e. mountains last folded during the Hercynian (Variscan) or older cycles. Generally, what is now metamorphic rocks used to be pre-Mesozoic sediments (e.g. flysch or limestone) which were altered - mostly through contact with magma – in the late Paleozoic. The metamorphic rocks (usually gneiss and schists) along with the granitoid rocks (magma that has set) form the so-called crystalline cores of numerous ranges on the inner side of the flysch belt. These crystalline blocks are – to varying extent – covered by Mesozoic limestone, especially on the flanks, since prolonged erosion has usually removed the limestone from the central part of the ranges.


View to the west from Gărgalău saddle Ancient crystalline rocks
However, regardless of how old the rocks are, the geomorphology of the Carpathians was virtually determined by the Alpine (Tertiary) mountain-building cycle, which: 1) folded vast areas of limestone and flysch deposited in the post-Paleozoic seas that covered most of what is now the Carpathians 2) uplifted a number of old, crystalline blocks along fault lines (cracks in the Earth's crust) 3) towards the end of the Tertiary, was completed with eruptions of lava inside the Carpathian arc. In contrast to the Alps, limestone nappes (i.e. huge folds) are neither well developed nor well preserved. In the Carpathians, it is flysch which plays their part. Limestone (or more precisely calcareous rocks - limestone and dolomite - white triangles on our maps) occurs mainly on the sides of the crystalline massifs. Limestone 'splinters' can also be found immersed in the flysch. But like elsewhere the outcrops of calcareous rocks, especially mid-Mesozoic (Jurassic), often boast precipitous bluffs and crags, narrow gorges and caves. At present, there aren't any glaciers left in the Carpathians, although the highest ranges did undergo intensive glacial activity in the Ice Age. As a result, their relief is bold and they are dotted with cirques and tarns, which makes for spectacular scenery. (A virtual NW to E to S to SW Carpathian traverse above the tree line is possible on SP by clicking here.)
Trzy Korony ...Limestone crowns
Calm before the stormGranite and tarns
Călimani s rimRemnants of volcanoes
In the following chapters, we will aim to list all the ranges of each unit of the Carpathian Big Five in a separate table, split into columns according to the dominant rock type. Below each table, you will find a list of the most attractive limestone areas.

Babel of Toponyms

The Carpathians have always been inhabited by a number of peoples. In recent centuries, among those nations have been Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Ukrainians, Romanians, Hungarians and Germans ('Saxons') and some smaller nations or ethic groups. Hence, most of the Carpathian ranges and sub-ranges have names in several languages. The topic is elaborated in this SP article.
Since including all the names in each of the languages used in a particular area would make the text and the tables listing mountain ranges and peaks too clumsy, we have decided to normally stick to the name in the language of the country whose territory a particular area is part of nowadays (most of the Carpathians lies in Slovakia, Ukraine and Romania today), with some exceptions, e.g. when an English name is internationally known or when the translation to English brings out the meaning (then the name will be given in italics), and occasionally when local ethnic proportions justify it. However, we believe that it would be appropriate to list all the different names on the area and mountain pages. A dictionary of toponyms has been initiated for this purpose. Also, a little Carpathian Picture Dictionary, which lists about 150 words in eight languages, is available on SP.
South Ridge
Piatra Craiului / Királykő / Königstein (Royal Rock)

Wildlife and Wilderness

Ferdinand ;)
Per 100 sq km of woodland Romania Slovakia Slovenia (top non-Carpathian)
over 8?
over 5
5 - 10
over 3
under 0.2
under 0.5
The Carpathians cannot compete with the Alps in elevation, but they are one of the few remaining areas in Europe that are so rich in wildlife. Carpathian wilderness, like almost elsewhere in Europe, is hardly land intact by humans – in fact, it is mostly found in the areas that has been rewilded over the last century or several decades. For example, the brown bear population in the Tatras - the highest Carpathian mountain range, in which the custom of hiking and mountaineering dates back to the 16th century and which is packed with visitors in summertime - has grown over twenty times since the end of World War II. Please see here.

In the remote corners of the Southern or Northeastern Carpathians, you can easily find solitude and walk all day without meeting anybody, but this is also possible in the more touristy Northwestern Carpathians provided that you keep away from honeypots. Fortunately, a number of the most attractive places within the Carpathians have not become honeypots yet. Let us hope they will remain wild forever.  

Wolf filmed by LukZem in the NE Carpathians
The Carpathians are home to various endangered and endemic species of plants and animals, including Europe's second largest (after Russia) brown bear population, especially strong in the southeast. Bears seem to be overpopulated in some areas, such as the Harghita/Hargita massif in the Eastern Carpathians or the Poľana in the NW Carpathians. If you are seeking an adventure package which encompasses crossing the bear country, the Carpathians by all means have it on offer. Check out the following link, full of information on the Carpathian bear, including detailed safety advice. Information on a range of animal species that inhabit the Carpathians can be studied on this SP page.
Chamois familyCarpathian chamois
MarmotHigh Tatra marmot
the flower 3Dianthus callizonus
the bear
Brown bear sanctuary
Fire Salamander of Devil s RockFire salamander
Rosalia longicorn (<i>Rosalia alpina</i>)Rosalia longicorn
Bear filmed in the Eastern Carpathians

Northwestern Carpathians

The Northwestern Carpathians are the widest and most complex part of the Carpathian mountain chain, stretching from the Danube River at Devín, east of Vienna (from the geologist’s perspective, the Carpathians extend a little beyond the Danube there, as the Hundsheimer/Hainburger Mountains at 480m, but we have decided to ignore such low hills on this page), to the valley of the Topľa River in the east of Slovakia. All three Carpathian lithologic belts – flysch, crystalline, and volcanic – are extensively developed here. It is also here that the the High Tatras (Gerlachovský štít, 2655 m) rise – the highest and most alpine in character mountain range in all of the Carpathians, which straddles the border between Slovakia and Poland.
High Tatras Vysoké Tatry (High Tatras) from Nízké Tatry (Low Tatras) - fall
Apart from the Tatras (which can be subdivided into the Western, High and Belianske Tatras), known in both Poland and Slovakia as Tatry, only the Low Tatras (Nízke Tatry) – a discrete mountain range that runs parallel to the Tatras between the valleys of the Váh and Hron rivers – exceed 2000 m in elevation. Despite there being plenty of crystalline ranges and massifs in the Northwestern Carpathians, the third highest mountain range in this part of the Carpathians stands inside the flysch belt, just north of the Tatras, and bears the name of High Beskid (Beskid Wysoki, more often called Beskid Żywiecki in Poland, after the town of Żywiec). Its highest massif tops out at 1725 m. The other three ranges that rise above timberline are the Little Fatra (Malá Fatra), the Great Fatra (Veľká Fatra) and the calcareous Chočské vrchy, all situated west of the Tatras or the Low Tatras. Like most of the other crystalline ranges in the Northwestern Carpathians, both the Fatras have vast areas formed of limestone and dolomite, within which some bold mountains stand. The most interesting of them is spectacular Veľký Rozsutec sitting at the north end of the Little Fatra.
High-Börzsöny panorama  Börzsöny - spring

In the southern chunk of the Northwestern Carpathians there are about a dozen hilly areas where volcanic rocks dominate. The highest of them, heavily wooded Pol'ana, reaches 1458 m and represents the remnants of a large stratovolcano. The volcanic belt of Northern Hungary crosses the Danube north of Budapest to extend further west, towards Lake Balaton, as the Transdanubian Hills, which are not regarded as part of the Carpathians except the Visegrád Mountains. 

On the map below triangles indicate the highest peaks of particular ranges. If you hover the mouse over them, you will see the names of the ranges and peaks. Black pentagons indicate major towns (if available, links to airports open upon clicking). The table below the map lists the ranges of the Northwestern Carpathians, sorted by the dominant rock type, in the following format: mountain range - highest peak - elevation (in meters). Ranges composed almost exclusively of calcareous rocks (white triangles on the map) are marked green in the table. More information about limestone areas is to be found below the table.

White Carpathians (Veľká Javorina, 970 m) Javorníky (Veľký Javorník, 1071 m) Moravskoslezské Beskydy (Lysá hora, 1323 m) Beskid Śląski (Skrzyczne, 1257 m) Beskid Mały (Czupel, 933 m) High Beskid (Babia Góra, 1725 m) Oravská Magura (Minčol, 1394 m) Skorušinské vrchy & Pogórze Gubałowskie (Skorušina, 1314 m) Beskid Makowski (Lubomir, 904 m) Gorce (Turbacz, 1310 m) Beskid Wyspowy (Mogielica, 1170 m) Beskid Sądecki (Radziejowa, 1262 m) Spišská Magura (Repisko, 1259 m) Levočské vrchy (Čierna hora, 1289 m) Čergov (Minčol, 1157 m) Little Carpathians (Záruby, 768 m) Inovec (Inovec, 1042 m) Strážovské vrchy (Strážov, 1213 m) Little Fatra (Veľký Kriváň, 1709 m) Western Tatras (Bystrá, 2248 m) High Tatras (Gerlachovský, 2655 m) Branisko (Smrekovica, 12000 m) Tribeč (Veľký Tribeč, 829 m) Greater Fatra (Ostredok, 1592 m) Low Tatras (Ďumbier, 2043 m) Veporské vrchy (Fabova hoľa, 1438 m) Stolické vrchy (Stolica, 1476) Volovské vrchy (Volovec, 1284) Vtáčnik (Vtáčnik, 1345 m) Kremnické vrchy (Flochová, 1317 m) Štiavnické vrchy (Sitno, 1009 m) Javorie-Ostrôžky (Lažtek, 1044 m) Poľana (Poľana, 1458 m) Börzsöny (Csóványos, 938 m) Visegrádi-hegység (Dobogókő, 700 m) Mátra (Kékes, 1014 m) Karancs-Medves (Karancs, 727 m) Zempléni-hegység (Nagy-Milic, 894 m) Slanské vrchy (Šimonka, 1092 m) Súľovské skaly (Veľký Manín, 891 m) Chočské vrchy (Veľký Choč, 1611 m) Belianské Tatry (Havran, 2152 m) Pieniny (Trzy Korony, 982 m) Muránska planina (Kľak, 1409 m) Slovenský raj (Ondrejisko, 1270 m) Gömör-Torna karst (Matesova skala, 925 m) Bükk (Istállós-kő, 959 m) Bratislava (SK) Budapest (HU) Košice (SK) Poprad (SK) Kraków (PL)
Gerlach seen from Rysy ridge
High Tatras - spring
Real skyscrapers
High Tatras - summer
Nizke Tatry - Dumbier summit
Low Tatras - winter
View of Rozsutec from Stefanowa
Little Fatra - summer


Flysch belt Crystalline belt Volcanic belt
Northern ranges (Western Beskids)
Moravskoslezské Beskydy Lysá hora 1323
Beskid Śląski Skrzyczne 1257
High Beskid Babia Góra/hora 1725
Gorce Turbacz 1310
Beskid Sądecki Radziejowa 1262
Beskid Mały Czupel 933
Beskid Makowski Lubomir 904
Beskid Wyspowy Mogielica 1170
Western ranges
White Carpathians Veľká Javorina 970
Javorníky  Veľký Javorník 1071
Inner ranges
Oravská Magura Minčol 1394
Skorušinské vrchy & Pogórze Gubałowskie Skorušina 1314
Pieniny Vysoké Skalky / Wysoka 1052
Spišská Magura Repisko 1259
Levočské vrchy Čierna hora 1289
Čergov Minčol 1157

The High Beskid, which straddles the Poland-Slovakia border, is called Beskid Żywiecki in Poland and Kysucké a Oravské Beskydy in Slovakia.
Western ranges
Little Carpathians Záruby 768
Inovec  Inovec 1042
Tribeč Veľký Tribeč 829
Strážovské vrchy Strážov 1213
Súľovské vrchy Veľký Manín 867
Northern ranges
Central ranges
Southeastern ranges
Veporské vrchy Fabova hoľa 1438
Stolické vrchy Stolica 1476
Volovské vrchy Volovec 1284
Branisko Smrekovica 1200

The Western Tatras (mostly metamorphic rocks and limestone) and the High Tatras (granite) are in fact one range. The SE ranges except Branisko are often grouped together as Slovenské rudohorie or Spišsko-gemerské rudohorie (Slovak), i.e. the Spiš-Gemer Ore Mountains.
Northern (Slovakian) massifs
Vtáčnik Vtáčnik 1345
Štiavnické vrchy Sitno 1009
Kremnické vrchy Flochová 1317
Javorie-Ostrôžky Lažtek 1044
Poľana Poľana 1458
Southern (Hungarian) massifs
Börzsöny Csóványos 938
Visegrádi-hegység Dobogókő 700
Karancs-Medves Karancs 727
Mátra Kékes-tető 1014
Bükk Istállós-kő 959
Eastern rim
Slanské vrchy Šimonka 1092
Zempléni-hegység Nagy-Milic 894

The Slanské and Zemplén Mountains actually make up a single range, cut in half by the border between Slovakia and Hungary - hence the two names. The whole range is also sometimes referred to as the Eperjes-Tokaj Mountains, after the two towns at opposite ends of the range (the Slovak name of Eperjes is Prešov). However, the traditional name of the range was the Sátor (meaning Tent) Mountains, after the shape of its mountains.
Hrubá Kopa-2166 mWestern Tatras
Above Kezmarska valley
High Tatras
Zdiarska Vidla and HavranBelianske Tatras
Babia Gora 1725mHigh Beskid
The highest segment of Velká FatraGreat Fatra
Vadálló kövekVisegrád Mountains
The most spectacular limestone areas in the north:  
  • Belianske Tatry - named after the town of Spišská Belá, the distinct limestone-and-dolomite ridge adjoining the High Tatras. The Belá Tatras along with the High Tatras are sometimes called the Eastern Tatras
    Rock window
    Low Tatras
  • the north of the Western Tatras, especially their Polish part with the massifs of Czerwone Wierchy and Giewont, and the Sivý Vrch Group at the west end of the Tatras (Slovakia)
  • Veľký Rozsutec and its vicinity in the Little Fatra
  • Pieniny - the most outstanding group of the limestone rocks scattered along the inner rim of the flysch belt (nice crags also stick out of flysch within the Orava-Podhale Basin and in the White (Bílé/Biele) Carpathians), right opposite the outer edge of the crystalline belt. The Pieniny are cut in half by the winding Dunajec River, which has created a scenic gorge through which one can travel on a locally made raft, on a bike or on foot
  • Chočské vrchy - a link between the Western Tatras and the two Fatras
  • Súľovské vrchy (Veľký Manín, 891 m) - north of the Strážovské vrchy, especially their northern part called Súľovské skaly - plenty of rock towers made up of limestone conglomerate
  • the massifs of Ohnište, Krakova hoľa and Salatín in the north of the Low Tatras
  • Bralná Fatra in the southwest, Šípska Fatra in the north and some other parts of the Great Fatra
Dolina Małej Łąki
Polish W Tatras
Veľký Choč (1611 m)
Veľký Choč
Cukorová Homolá (Cukorsüveg) Slovak Karst
Súľovský hradSúľovské skaly
Dunajec river gorgePieniny
Vršatec rocksWhite Carpathians

Limestone plateaus and canyon lands on the peripheries of the Slovenské rudohorie:  

Slovensky raj, Slovakia Slovak Paradise 
  • Spišsko-gemerský kras ('kras' means karst in Slavonic languages) - consists of two distinct parts: Muránska planina (Kľak, 1409 m) and Slovak Paradise / Slovenský raj (Ondrejisko, 1270 m). Slovak Paradise is famous for its trails which lead one up narrow canyons and waterfalls with the assistance of metal or wooden ladders, bridges, steps and chains. (Such trails have also been built in other places in the Northwestern Carpathians, but nowhere is their network so vast.)
  • Gömör-Torna karst - cut in half by the political border between Slovakia and Hungary: Slovak karst (Matesova skala, 925 m) in the north (including Zadielská Dolina) and Aggtelek karst (Fertős-tető, 604 m) in the south.
  • Bükk (Istállós-kő - 959 m) - within the Hungarian volcanic belt.
Belian Tatras Belianske Tatry (Belá Tatras) - fall

Northeastern Carpathians

The lowest group of the Carpathians, located at the northeastern reaches of the Pannonian Basin, forms a stout flysch bridge between the old orogens of the Northwestern Carpathians and those of the Eastern Carpathians. The geology of the Northeastern Carpathians is rather monotonous. The outer belt of flysch is accompanied by an inner belt of Tertiary volcanoes. The elevation of the mountains and passes generally increases toward the southeast to finally culminate in the highest summits of the Chornohora range and the Marmarosh Mountains, but the highest summits hardly exceed 2000 m. In the Chornohora and Svydovets ranges fine corries with sizable tarns can be found, but traces of the Pleistocene glaciers also occur around the highest peaks of the Marmarosh and Ţibleş mountains.

The Northeastern Carpathians are famed for what can be likened to alps and is known as polonynahere - vast swaths of grassland which are believed to be natural at the highest elevations, but have been greatly extended by man at the expense of the krumholz zone, consisting mostly of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo) and the montane forest, so that it makes way for mountains pastures. The term 'polonyna' is also often used instead of 'range' or 'ridge'.

Polonyna Borzhava
Borzhava - a model polonyna

The borders of this quarter of the Carpathian Arc are drawn somewhat arbitrarily - we have opted for the valley of the Topľa River in the northwest and Prislop/Borşa pass in the southeast. The divisions and names of the subgroups within the sandstone chain are plenty and confusing. A case in point can be the borderline between the Eastern Beskids and the Marmarosh Mountains, which has had completely different versions: 1) Uzhok Pass (Użocka Przełęcz / Uzhots'kyi pereval) at the Poland-Ukraine border, 2) Verets'kyi Pass, 3) the source of Bela Tysa (White Tisa) River by the Ukrainian/Romanian border. Here we have used the last one, since it is the most commonly applied today, after new countries appeared or re-appeared in the East Central Europe, usually with different borders, in the 20th century. 

On the map below triangles indicate the highest peaks of particular ranges. If you hover the mouse over them, you will see the names of the ranges and peaks. Black pentagons indicate major towns (if available, links to airports open upon clicking).In the tables below the map, the member ranges of the Northeastern Carpathians have been listed from northwest to southeast, sorted by rock type, in the following format: mountain range - highest peak - elevation (in meters).

Central / Low Beskid (Bušov, 1002 m) Góry Sanocko-Turczańskie (Magura Łomniańska, 1024 m) Bieszczady Zachodnie (Tarnica, 1346 m) Bieszczady Wschodnie (Pikui, 1405 m) Beskidy Skolskie (Parashka, 1269 m) Gorgany (Syvulia, 1836 m) Pokuts'ki Karpaty (Rotylo, 1483 m) Mountains of Northeastern Bukovyna (Lungul, 1377) Putylski Hory (Yarovytsia, 1575 m) Obcina Mare (Skoruşet, 1223) Obcina Feredeu (Veju Mare, 1494) Obcina Mestecăniş (Ţapul Mare, 1661) Polonyna-Runa (Runa, 1480 m) Polonyna Borzhava (Stiy, 1682 m) Polonyna Krasna (Hropa, 1564 m) Svydovets' (Blyznytsia, 1881 m) Chornohora (Hoverla, 2061 m) Hryniavs'ki Hory (Pohreptyna, 1605 m) Munţii Maramureş (Farcău, 1956 m) Vihorlatské vrchy (Vihorlat, 1076 m) Makovytsia-Synyak (Dunauka, 1019 m) Velykyi Dil (Buzhora, 1085 m) Tupyi Mountains (Tupij, 878 m) Munţii Oaş (Piatra Vâscului, 917 m) Creasta Pietrii (Igniş, 1307 m) Munţii Gutâi (Gutâi, 1445 m) Munţii Lăpuş (Văratec, 1348 m) Munţii Ţibleş (Ţibleş, 1839 m) Košice /Kassa/ (SK) Uzhorod /Ungvár/ (UA) Satu Mare /Szatmárnémeti, Sathmar/ (RO) Ivano-Frankivsk (UA) Lviv (UA)
Chornohora - winter
Wetlinska Meadow II - Summit Vistas
Western Bieszczady - fall
Cliff of Pip Ivan's corrie
Marmarosh Mts - summer
Strymba (1719 m) and Streminis (1652 m) in spring
Gorgany - spring


Sandstone (flysch) belt Volcanic belt
Low Beskid - between the Topľa River and Lupkovský/Łupków pass, in Poland also known as Central Beskids, in Slovakia its lower part is called Ondavská vrchovina Bušov 1002
Ukrainian Carpathians or Eastern Beskids (Polish term encompassing the Bukovina Carpathians too) - usually split into two subgroups: the Polonyna Ridge and the Wooded Beskyds/Carpathians - details in a separate table below Hoverla 2061
Marmarosh Mountains - in geologic and geomorphologic terms the most complex of all the ranges in the Northeastern Carpathians - a bit more info below this table, much more on the area page Farcău 1956

Bukovina Carpathians - a group of parallel ranges within the borders of the historic Bukovina (now in Ukraine and Romania): 

  • Ukraine - Mountains of Northeastern Bukovyna (Lungul, 1377), Putyls'ki Hory (Yarovytsia, 1575)
  • Romania - Obcina Mestecăniş (Ţapul Mare*, 1661), Obcina Feredeu (Veju Mare, 1494) and Obcina Mare (Skoruşet, 1223)
Ţapul Mare 1661

* Ţapul Mare is the highpoint of the Ţibău Mts. If they are not considered part of Obcina Mestecăniş, its highpoint will be Lucina at 1588 m.
Vihorlatské vrchy Vihorlat 1076
Makovytsia-Syniak Dunavka 1019
Velykyi Dil Buzhora 1085
Tupyi Mts. Tupyi 878
Oaş* Piatra Vâscului 917
Igniş* Igniş 1307
Gutâi* Gutâiul Mare 1445
Lăpuş* Văratec 1357
Ţibleş Bran 1840

* The Oaş, Igniş and Lăpuş mountains are sometimes incorporated into the Gutâi Mountains.
Mount Syvula - Gorgany mtns.
Pearl of the ChornohoraChornohora
Mount Pip Ivan from Mezipotoky
Marmarosh Mts
Mount Cergowa ( 716 m )Low Beskid
Arcer peak (1829m)
Bukovina Carpathians - Obcina MestecanisObcina Mestecăniş

To demonstrate the complexity of the Marmarosh Mountains, it should suffice to list their four highest peaks along with the rock material they are composed of:

His majesty
Marmarosh Mts
  • Farcău (1956 m) - submarine basalt
  • Pop Ivan (1938 m) - Precambrian gneiss, one of the oldest rocks in the Carpathians
  • Toroiaga (1930 m) - andesite (lava intrusion)
  • Mihailecu (1920 m) - alternate beds of limestone and basalt, folded and set vertically

Such varying geology is also reflected in interesting geomorphology, which is enhanced by the fact that this part of the Carpathians is still pretty quickly being lifted by tectonic forces and by the results of the activity of the Ice Age glaciers at the highest elevations. The highest range in the Bukovina Carpathians (Obcina Mestecăniş) is geologically similarly patchworked, although it is less prominent.

Maramureş Mountains Marmarosh Mountains viewed from the Rodnei Mountains

As to the Ukrainian Carpathians / Eastern Beskids (PL), their various divisions can be perplexing. The table below aims to provide a concise list of the mountain ranges in accordance with the official Ukrainian and Polish classifications. 

Wooded Beskids (PL) / Wooded Carpathians (UA) Polonyna Ridge (Polonyns'kyi khrebet)
Western Bieszczady (Polish: Bieszczady Zachodnie) - between Łupków Pass in the west and Uzhok Pass and the Stryi River in the east Tarnica 1346
* Skole Beskyds (Skolivs'ki Beskydy in Ukrainian, Beskid Skolski in Polish) or Eastern Bieszczady (Polish, in Ukraine the term Bieszczady is normally used only for the Western Bieszczady) - a number of more or less parallel ridges between Uzhok and Torun passes Magura 1363
Vododilnyi khrebet (literally Water Dividing Ridge) - SE extension of the main ridge of the Western Bieszczady, in Poland usually included in the Eastern Bieszczady Pikui 1405
Gorgany - boasting thirteen summits with more than 500 m of prominence (far more than any other Carpathian range!), this huge range extends east of the Skole Beskyds as far as the Prut River Syvulia 1836
Pokuts'ki Karpaty - between the Prut and the Cheremosh rivers Rotylo 1483
* Polonyna-Runa (Rivna) Runa/Rivna 1480
Polonyna Borzhava Stiy (Stohy) 1682
Polonyna Krasna Syhlianskyi 1564
Svydovets Blyznytsia 1881
Chornohora Hoverla 2061
Hryniavs'ki hory Halia Myhailova / Pohreptyna / Pohrebyna 1605



  • The asterisked ranges used to and in our opinion can be regarded as parts of a bigger mountain group - details in the table below these remarks.
  • The SW part of the Western Bieszczady lies in Slovakia, where it is known as Bukovské vrchy.
  • The NE threshold of the Bieszczady is named the Sanok-Turka Mountains (PL: Góry Sanocko-Turczańskie or less formally the Low Bieszczady) or the Upper Dniester Beskyds (UA: Verkhnio-Dnistrovs'ki Beskydy). Most of these mountains lies in Poland, but their highpoint, Magura Limnyans'ka at 1022 m, sits in the Ukrainian territory.
  • For decades the highest summit in the Skole Beskyds was believed to be Parashka at 1269 m, whereas in fact it is Magura in the eastern part of this mountain group

In the sea of flysch only occasionally can small patches of limestone be found. The largest are in the south of Polonyna Krasna, which boasts an extraordinary, massive karst bridge, whose Ukrainian name Karstovyi mist, meaning just Karst Bridge, emphasizes its uniqueness.

The Sun of BieszczadyWestern Bieszczady
Mt.Starostyna - Eastern BieszczadyPikui Ridge
Gorgany dawn
Three polonynasToward Polonyna Runa
Karst arch
Krasna bridge
Mount Blyznytsia - Svydovets mtns.

Now we would like to present our own division of the area between the Low Beskid in the west and the Gorgany and Polonyna Borzhava in the east - what could be called the Bieszczady/Beschady Group. The real difference lies in distinguishing the Southern Bieszczady (SW part of the area), made up of the highest part of the Bieszczady's main ridge along with Polynyna Runa. Such a classification recognizes the Ukrainian objections to linking the Pikui Ridge with the Skole Beskyds, but refuses to do so as far as the eastern part of the main watershed, east of the Latirka Pass (Latirs'kyi pereval) and the Latorytsa River, is concerned. The Pikui Ridge is better connected to the Polonyna Runa (Rivna) group, rises to similar elevations and also features classic polonynas. 

Range Eastern borderline Subgroups Highpoint, elevation
Western Bieszczady/Beschady Stryi River - Uzhok Pass - Uzh River

Western Bieszczady proper

(High Western Bieszczady)

Sanok-Turka Mountains*

(Low Western Bieszczady)

Tarnica, 1346 m


Magura Limnyans'ka, 1022 m

Skole Beskyds

(Eastern Bieszczady)

Mizunka Creek - Torun Pass - Holyatynka Creek

Western Skole Beskyds

- west of the Opir River

Eastern Skole Beskyds

- east of the Opir River

Parashka, 1269 m


Magura, 1363 m

Pikui and Ostra Hora Group

(Southern Bieszczady)

Upper Stryi River - Latirka Pass (Latirs'kyi pereval)** - Latorytsa River

Pikui Ridge

(W part of Vododilnyi khrebet)

Ostra Hora Group

(Polonyna Runa/Rivna)

Pikui, 1405 m


Runa/Rivna, 1480 m

* Please see the remarks above this table

** Latirka Pass at 770 m, located five kilometers northwest of the much better known Verets'kyi (Verecke) Pass, is the lowest pass on the main ridge of the Carpathians in the territory of Ukraine.

Eastern Carpathians

The Eastern Carpathians run southwardly from Prislop/Borşa and the valley of the Bistriţa Aurie at least as far as Predeal Pass, beyond which rises the dramatic wall of the Bucegi Mountains towering over the Prahova Valley. If more attention is drawn to the rock type than to the topography, the west frontier of the Eastern Carpathians will have to be pushed farther west and the most logical border line will be Giuvala Pass (Bran-Rucar corridor).

E face of the Bucegi
Bucegi Mountains - September
If you have read the previous chapters, you will not be surprised that we have opted for the latter division line. The location of the highest point of the Eastern Carpathians depends on the answer to the question where the southwestern boundary of these mountains is. Having decided on Giuvala Pass, we point to Omu at 2514 m, the highest summit of the Bucegi Mountains. If we opted for Predeal Pass and the Prahova Valley, it would be the highest peak of the Rodna/Rodnei Mountains, Pietrosul Rodnei at 2303 m. There is no doubt, however, that the latter will always be the most prominent summit in the Eastern Carpathians since it has 1572 m of prominence. Both the Bucegi and the Rodna boast picturesque postglacial corries, but those in the Bucegi - owing to the rock material the range is formed of - are devoid of tarns.
Pietrosu and Grohotu
Rodnei Mountains - April
In the Eastern Carpathians, all the three lithologic belts characteristic of the Northwestern Carpathians get exposed again. The volcanic range is of great importance and boasts the highest volcanic massif across the Carpathians - the Călimani Mountains reaching a peak at 2102 m. The flysch belt is well developed, as wide as the flysch belt of the Northeastern Carpathians but - especially on the Transylvanian side - differs from the typical Carpathian flysch in that it contains large amounts of calcium. As a result, several ranges of the Eastern Carpathians show off scenic, bizarre, mighty rock formations of calcareous conglomerate (or arenaceous, i.e. sandy, limestone).
Călimani Mountains - summer
On the map below triangles indicate the highest peaks of particular ranges. If you hover the mouse over them, you will see the names of the ranges and peaks. Black pentagons indicate major towns (if available, links to airports open upon clicking). The tables below the map list the ranges of the Eastern Carpathians, sorted by the dominant rock type, in the following format: mountain range - highest peak - elevation (in meters). Ranges composed almost exclusively of calcareous rocks (white and green triangles on the map) are marked green in the tables. More information about limestone areas is to be found below the tables.
Munţii Rodnei (Pietrosu Mare, 2303 m) Munţii Bârgău (Heniul Mare, 1612 m) Munţii Suhard (Omului, 1932 m) Munţii Bistriţei (Budacu, 1859 m) Munţii Giurgeu (Şipoş, 1576 m) Munţii Ciucului - North (Noşcolat, 1553 m) Munţii Căliman (Pietrosu, 2102 m) Munţii Gurghiului (Saca Mare, 1777 m) Munţii Harghita (Harghita-Mădăraş, 1800 m) Ciomat (Ciomatul Mare, 1301 m) Munţii Giumalău-Rarău (Giumalău, 1856 m) Munţii Giumalău-Rarău (Rarău, 1651 m) Munţii Stânişoarei (Bivolul, 1530 m) Munţii Ceahlău (Ocolaşul Mare, 1907 m) Munţii Goşman (Cracul Geamăna, 1442 m) Munţii Tarcăului (Grinduşul, 1664 m) Munţii Hăşmaş (Hăşmaşul Mare, 1793 m) Munţii Ciucului - South (Şoiul Mare, 1553 m) Munţii Nemira (Nemira Mare, 1649 m) Munţii Bodoc (Cărpiniş, 1241 m) Munţii Baraolt (Gurgău, 1017 m) Munţii Perşani (Măgura Codlei, 1292 m) Munţii Vrancei (Goru, 1783 m) Munţii Penteleu (Penteleu, 1772 m) Podu Calului (Podul Calului, 1440 m) Munţii Siriu (Siriu/Bocârne, 1657 m) Munţii Ciucaş (Ciucaş, 1954 m) Munţii Grohotiş (Grohotiş, 1767 m) Munţii Baiului (Neamţului, 1923 m) Munţii Bârsei - Piatra Mare (Piatra Mare, 1843 m) Munţii Bârsei - Postavarul (Cristianul Mare, 1804 m) Munţii Bucegi (Omu, 2507 m) Munţii Leaota (Leaota, 2133 m) Sibiu /Hermannstadt, Nagyszeben/ Braşov /Kronstadt, Brassó/ Târgu Mureş /Marosvásárhely/ Cluj-Napoca /Kolozsvár, Klausenburg/
Pietrosu and Buhăescu peaks
Rodna - summer
Panaghia Rock (1776m)
Ceahlău - summer
Rock climbing area
Bucegi - spring
Ciucaş - Tigăile Mari
Ciucaș - winter


Flysch belt Crystalline belt Volcanic belt
We have split all mountain ranges within this group into these two subgroups (subsequent ranges are listed in a separate table below):
  • Moldovan-Transylvanian subgroup
  • Carpathian Bend subgroup

The term Carpathian Bend, (Romanian: Carpaţii Curburii; Hungarian: Kárpátkanyar) is in widespread use for the mountains where the great Carpathian arc takes a sharp turn (from N-S to E-W), between Oituz Pass in the northeast and Giuvala Pass west of the Bucegi.
Rodna (Rodnei) Pietrosu 2303
Suhard Omului 1932
Giumalău-Rarău Giumalău 1856
Bârgău Heniul Mare 1612
Bistriţei Budacu 1859
Giurgeu / Gyergyó Şipoş 1576
Hăşmaş / Hagymás Hăşmaşul Mare 1793
Ciuc / Csíki Noşcolat 1553
Perşani Măgura Codlei 1292
Leaota Leaota 2133

The Perşani Mountains are geologically complex and display sedimentary and volcanic rocks as well as crystalline rocks. The southern part of the Ciucului Mts consists of sedimentary rocks.
Călimani Pietrosu 2102
Gurghiu / Görgényi Saca Mare 1777
Harghita / Hargita Harghita-Mădăraş 1800
Ciomat / Csomád Ciomatul Mare 1301

Ciomat is a relatively small volcanic block situated on the periphery of the flysch Bodoc Mts., but geologically related to the Harghita Mountains. Ciomat is the youngest and best preserved volcano in the group, cradling the beautiful Saint Anna Lake in its main crater. There is still intensive post-volcanic activity in the area: SP photo album


 Dripping Stone , TransylvaniaGurghiului Mts
Mount Pietrosul
Călimani Mts
Lake St. AnnaCiomat

From Morar Needles


Ranges of the flysch belt in detail - those marked with ONE asterisk (*) are composed mostly of calcareous conglomerates (and arenaceous limestone) and boast scenic rock formations:

Moldovan-Transylvanian subgroup Carpathian Bend subgroup
Moldovan ranges
Stânişoarei Bivolul 1530
Ceahlău * Ocolaşul Mare 1907
Goşman Cracul Geamăna 1442
Tarcău Grinduşul 1664
Transylvanian ranges
Nemira Nemira Mare 1649
Ciuc / Csíki (S**) Şoiul Mare 1553
Bodoc / Bodoki Cărpiniş 1241
Baraolt / Baróti Gurgău 1017

**The northern part of Munţii Ciucului consists of crystalline rocks.
Vrancei Goru 1783
Penteleu** Penteleu 1772
Calului** Podul Calului 1440
Siriu** Siriu/Bocârne 1657
Ciucaş * Ciucaş 1954
Grohotiş Grohotiş 1767
Baiul (Gârbova) Neamţului 1923
Piatra Mare Piatra Mare 1843
Postăvaru Cristianul Mare 1804
Bucegi * Omu 2514

**The Penteleu, Podu Calului and Siriu ranges (along with the small Întorsurii and Ivăneţu, which are neglected here) are often grouped together as Munţii Buzăului (Buzău Mountains).

ost of the mountain ranges in the Carpathian Bend east of the Ciucas is heavily forested, features relatively little grassland and hardly any crags. Hikers, especially foreign hikers, do not come here very often. It is the realm of the bear, wolf, lynx and red deer. The most attractive natural sites are located away from the summits. Some of the rivers have carved interesting canyons, but what is absolutely unique is to be seen in the foothills of the Buzău Mountains, northwest of the town of Buzău. Near the village of Berca are picturesque mud volcanoes, whereas near Terca and farther north, near Andreiasu de Jos in the foothills of the Vrancei Mountains, natural gas seeps out of the ground creating a phenomenon known as focul viu (living fire). It should be mentioned that the Vrancei Mountains are one of the most seismically active areas in Europe. An earthquake with its epicenter here destroyed part of Bucharest and killed around 1500 people in 1977.

Cărpiniş summit (1241 m)
Bodoc Mountains
Goru peak (1785 m)
Vrancei Mountains
Mud Volcanoes
Mud volcanoes at Berca
Spectacular limestone ranges and blocks:
Pinnacle II
Vârghiş Gorge, Perşani Mts
  • Rarău in the Giumalău-Rarău Mountains (Rarău, 1651 m)
  • Hagymás/Hăşmaş in the land of Hungarian-speaking Szeklers, with gorgeous rock spires such as Egyeskő/Piatra Singuratică (Solitary Rock) and Oltár-kő/Piatra Altarului (Altar Rock), the breathtaking Békás/Bicaz (Frog) Gorge, Fekete-Hagymás/Hăghimaşul Negru peak, and Gyilkos-tó/Lacul Roşu (Killer/Red Lake created by a 19th century landslide that has blocked a stream)
  • Măgura Codlei and Vargyas/Vârghiş Gorge in the Perşani Mountains
  • Bârsei Mountains - consisting of two distinct massifs: Postăvaru and Piatra Mare i.e. The Great Rock 
Altar Rock, Transylvania
Altar Rock
Ladies cliffs
Egyeskő / Piatra Singuratică
Solitary Rock
Spring in Transylvania
Gyilkos-tó/Lacu Roşu
Gheara Pisicii (right side)
Great Rock
Frog Gorge

Southern Carpathians

The Southern Carpathians (also known as the Transylvanian Alps) extend from the Banat Mountains (see next chapter) in the west to Giuvala (Bran) Pass, or - according to a diverse vision - Predeal Pass and the Prahova Valley in the east, where the mountain system meets the Eastern Carpathians. If the latter endpoint were assumed, the Bucegi and Leaota mountains, which we have included in the Eastern Carpathians, would belong to the Southern Carpathians. If not, the easternmost mountain group in the Southern Carpathians is the Făgăraș Group, and the easternmost ranges are the Piatra Craiului and the Iezer-Păpușa.

The  Iezer-Papusa  mt.., the hihghest summit ( 2391 m), in the center Iezer-Papuşa, Făgăraș Group - winter
The Southern Carpathians differ from the Northwestern, Northeastern and Eastern Carpathians in that both flysch and volcanic belts are completely missing from them. These mountains are the most elevated, southern edge of the ancient Tisa-Dacia platform. They contain about a dozen ranges that exceed 2000 m in elevation, including eight ranges rising above 2200 m - more than the other parts of the Carpathian Mountains altogether. The bold alpine, or rather Tatra-like relief, is to be found in the Făgăraş and the Retezat, and also in the highest part of the Parâng. These three ranges top out above 2500 m. The Făgăraş is the second highest range in the Carpathians (and the highest in Romania), the highpoint of the Parâng is the second most prominent peak (2101 m of prominence), the Retezat is famous for its tarns. 
Panorama with a better weather
Făgăraş Mountains - summer
Still, many of the high ranges and ridges of the Southern Carpathians have pretty gentle, broad crests. They are usually formed of metamorphic schists and gneiss and some feature remnants of an old peneplain - best preserved and easily recognizable in the Godeanu Mountains - lifted high, deeply cut by the rivers and since time immemorial used as pastureland. These natural meadows have been extended by clearing the bushes of the mountain pine above the tree line, which usually has also been lowered; especially on the less rocky, warmer, southern slopes.
The eastern and central segment of the Căpăţânii Mountains Căpăţânii Mountains, Parâng Group - summer
Limestone karst is fabulously developed in the Mehedinţi range in the southwest, whereas at the east end of the Southern Carpathians stands the most spectacular limestone ridge in the Carpathian Mountains, the Piatra Craiului (Royal Rock), which offers plenty of climbing opportunities and shelters stunning wildlife.
Bucura cirque panorama Retezat Mountains, Retezat-Godeanu Group - mid-June
On the map below triangles indicate the highest peaks of particular ranges. If you hover the mouse over them, you will see the names of the ranges and peaks. Black pentagons indicate major towns (if available, links to airports open upon clicking). The table below the map lists the ranges of the Southern Carpathians, sorted by the dominant rock type, in the following format: mountain range - highest peak - elevation (in meters). Ranges composed almost exclusively of calcareous rocks (white triangles on the map) are marked green in the table. A little more information on limestone areas is to be found below the table.
Piatra Craiului (La Om, 2238 m) Munţii Iezer-Păpuşa (Roşu, 2469 m) Munţii Făgăraş (Moldoveanu, 2544 m) Munţii Cozia (Cozia, 1668 m) Munţii Cândrel (Cândrel, 2244 m) Munţii Lotru (Stefliste, 2242 m) Munţii Căpăţânii (Nedeia, 2130 m) Buila-Vânturariţa (Vânturariţa I, 1885 m) Munţii Şurean (lui Pătru, 2130 m) Munţii Parâng (Parângu Mare, 2519 m) Munţii Retezat (Peleaga, 2509 m) Munţii Vâlcan (Oslea, 1946 m) Munţii Ţarcu (Pietrii, 2192 m) Munţii Godeanu (Gugu, 2291 m) Munţii Mehedinţi (lui Stan, 1466 m) Munţii Cernei (Dobrii, 1928 m) Timişoara /Temesvár/ (RO) Sibiu /Hermannstadt, Nagyszeben/ (RO) Braşov /Kronstadt, Brassó/ (RO) Târgu Mureş /Marosvásárhely/ (RO) Cluj-Napoca /Kolozsvár, Klausenburg/ (RO)
Å¢imbalul Mare - north ridge
Piatra Craiului - winter
Negoiu peak (2535m) taken...
Făgăraş - winter
Gruiu peak (2345m)
Parâng - summer
Bucura from Pietrele valley
Retezat - spring


Făgăraş Group Parâng Group Retezat-Godeanu Group
Piatra Craiului La Om 2238
Iezer-Păpuşa Roşu 2469
Făgăraş Moldoveanu 2544
Cozia Ciuha Mare 1668
Cindrel Cindrel 2244
Lotru Ştefleşti 2242
Şureanu (Sebeș) lui Pătru 2130
Parâng Parângu Mare 2519
Căpăţânii Nedeia 2130

The part of the Parâng between the Lotru and Latoriţa rivers is often distinguished as the Latoriţei Mountains (Bora, 2055 m). 
Retezat Peleaga 2509
Ţarcu Pietrii 2192
Godeanu Gugu 2291
Cernei Dobrii 1928
Vâlcan Oslea 1946
Mehedinţi Vârful lui Stan 1466


Lakes of the Bucura valley
Moldoveanu summit  (2544m)
Piatra Craiului
Piatra Craiului
Muntii SureanuȘureanu
The Land of Serenity - Lotru mountainsLotru
Godeanu mountains
Leontopodium alpinum II Edelweiss
Banita Gorges
Băniţa Gorge
Remarkable limestone areas:
  • Piatra Craiului (La Om, 2238 m) - the most majestic limestone range of all in the Carpathians, whose name translates as Royal Rock
  • Munţii Cozia (Ciuha Mare / Cozia, 1668 m) on the western edge of the Făgăraş Group and part of the Căpăţânii Mountains across the Olt River from the Cozia Mountains, 
  • Buila-Vânturariţa massif (Vânturariţa I, 1885 m) - outstanding ridge in the southeastern corner of the Căpăţânii Mountains, looking like a smaller version of Piatra Craiului
  • Târnovu massif (1880 m) in the northwest of the Căpăţânii
  • SE corner of the Parâng and SW corner of the Căpăţânii, just north of the villages of Polovragi and Baia de Fier: Peștera Muierilor (Women’s Cave), Polovragi Cave, Șura Haiducilor (rock arch), gorges of the Olteţ, Tărâia, Cerna and Galbenu
  • Grădiștea Muncelului-Cioclovina Nature Park in the western part of the Şureanu Mountains: caves, Cheile Băniţei (Băniţa Gorge), Cheile Crivadiei. (The park also boasts remnants of Dacian hillforts dating back two thousand years, including what is left of Sarmizegetusa, the capital of the Dacian Kingdom.)
  • Munţii Cernei (Dobrii / Dobri Vir, 1928 m) - southerly extension of the Godeanu Mountains, divided from the Mehedinţi mountains by the valley of the Cerna
  • Munţii Mehedinţi (Vârful lui Stan, 1466 m) - vast karst area dotted with caves and gorges, southwestern extension of the Vâlcan Mountains. Parts of the Cernei and Mehedinţi mountains along the Cerna Valley (and also parts of the Godeanu and the Vâlcan mountains farther to the northeast) have been declared the Domogled-Valea Cernei National Park
Karst Paradise Buila-Vânturariţa
Piatra CraiuluiPiatra Craiului
Mount ArjanaCernei Mountains

Southwestern Carpathians

Nera s Gorges Nera Gorges (Aninei Mountains)
NERA S GORGES Beusnita Falls (Aninei Mountains)
What we have identified as the Southwestern Carpathians consists of three separate mountain groups.
1) By the Danube River, in the historic province of Banat, sits the last segment of the Carpathian Arc. The Banat Mountains and the northernmost mountains of Eastern Serbia can be seen as parts of the same mountain group - a link between the Carpathian chain and the Balkan (Stara Planina) Mountains - split by the canyon of the Danube. In fact, there are three options for the SW end of the Carpathians: a) The gorges of the Danube, for which we have opted here, b) The Juzna (South) Morava and the Timok rivers in Serbia, c) The Timiş (Temes) and Mehadica rivers in Romania. Regardless of whereabouts the Carpathians end, the eastern boundary of the mountains of Banat runs straight north from the Iron Gate proper, along the tectonic fault line which determines the course of the Mehadica and Timiş rivers, between the towns of Orşova and Caranşebeş.
2) To the northeast of these mountains, northwest of the Retezat Mountains, lies the massif of Poiana Ruscă - for centuries heavily grazed, and more recently heavily mined for iron. Both the mountains of Banat and the Poiana Ruscă contain fairly low mountains (below 1500 m) and are often regarded as parts of the Southern Carpathians.
Bihor Mountains Bihor/Bihar, the highest range in the Apuseni Mountains
3) Finally, north of the Poiana Ruscă, across the valley of the Mureş (Maros) River, stands the largest and highest (above 1800 m) Carpathian "island" (some geological classifications exclude it from the Carpathians), bounded by the Pannonian Plain in the west and separated from the Carpathian Arc by the upland of Transylvania in the east. Romanian people call it Munţii Apuseni, which translates as the Western Mountains (before World War I, they were called the Island Mountains of Eastern Hungary, nowadays Hungarians refer to them as the Island Mountains of Transylvania). 
Truly Transylvania
Padiş/Pádis karst plateau
The Southwestern Carpathians are the lowest and least forested of the five major parts of the Carpathians we have depicted on this page, each in a different chapter. What makes these mountains fascinating is the fact that they embrace vast limestone areas, including the most spectacular karst land in all of the Carpathians: the Padiş/Pádis Plateau in the north of the Bihor/Bihar Mountains. As for the ancient crystalline core of the Apuseni, some evidence suggests that it differs from that of the Carpathian Basin and could have once been part of the Dinarides.
Vlădeasa Mountains
On the flanks of the Apuseni, besides limestone plateaus, post-Paleozoic lava (creating most of the Vlădeasa/Vlegyásza Mountains) and flysch are also present.
On the map below triangles indicate the highest peaks of particular ranges. If you hover the mouse over them, you will see the names of the ranges and peaks. Black pentagons indicate major towns (if available, links to airports open upon clicking). The tables below the map list the ranges in each group north to south, sorted by the dominant rock type, in the following format: mountain range - highest peak - elevation (in meters). Ranges composed almost exclusively of calcareous rocks (white triangles on the map) are marked green in the tables. A little more information about limestone areas is to be found below the tables. Ranges marked with an asterisk (*) in the tables boast spectacular limestone karst.
Munţii Plopişului / Şes (Măgura Mare, 918 m) Munţii Meseş (Măgura Priei, 996 m) Pădurea Craiului (Hodrâncuşa, 1027 m) Vlădeasa (Vlădeasa, 1836 m) Codru Moma (Pleşu, 1112 m) Munţii Bihor (Cucurbăta Mare, 1849 m) Padiş (Biserica Moţului, 1456 m) Munţii Gilău (Muntele Mare, 1826 m) Munţii Zarand (Drocea, 836 m) Munţii Metalliferi (Poieniţa, 1437 m) Munţii Trascău (Dâmbău, 1369 m) Poiana Ruscă (Padeş, 1374 m) Munţii Aninei (Leordis, 1160 m) Munţii Semenic (Semenic/Piatra Goznei, 1446 m) Munţii Locvei (Corhanul Mare, 735 m) Munţii Almăjului (Svinecea Mare, 1224 m) Timişoara /Temesvár/ (RO) Sibiu /Hermannstadt, Nagyszeben/ (RO) Târgu Mureş /Marosvásárhely/ (RO) Cluj-Napoca /Kolozsvár, Klausenburg/ (RO)
Hiker's Paradise
From Trascău to Gilău mts
Cosul Boului cave
Gilău Mountains
Turnul Ascuţit (Éles-torony)
Trascău/Torockó Mountains
Aninei Mountains


Apuseni Mountains (Western Transylvania)
Northern group
Pădurea Craiului * Hodrâncuşa 1027
Plopişului / Şes Măgura Mare 918
Meseş Măgura Priei 996
Central group
Moma Pleşu 1112
Bihor * Cucurbăta Mare 1849
Vlădeasa Vlădeasa 1836
Gilău Muntele Mare 
Southern group
Zarand Drocea 836
Metaliferi Poieniţa 1437
Trascău * Dâmbău 1369
Bridge #4 areaTrascău/Torockó Mountains
Poiana Ruscă and Mountains of Banat
Poiana Ruscă Padeş 1374

Semenic Semenic / Piatra Goznei 1446
Anina (Aninei) * Leordis 1160
Locva (Locvei) Corhanul Mare 735
 Almăj Svinecea Mare 1224
The following limestone areas boast the most spectacular scenery: 
  • Pădurea Craiului / Királyerdö (King's Forest) with its numerous caves
  • Padiş/Pádis Plateau - famed for its undeground karst
  • Trascău/Torockó Mountains: Turzii/Tordai Gorge - a scenic canyon and a popular rock climbing area; Râmeţ/Remete Gorge popular with hikers; Piatra Secuiului/Székelykő - the historic Rock of the Szeklers
  • Scărita-Belioara nature reserve in the Gilău Mountains, west of Turzii/Tordai Gorge
  • Anina Mountains and an adjacent swath of the Semenic Mountains: Nera Gorges-Beușnița National Park in the south, Semenic-Caraș Gorge National Park in the north, Bigăr Falls in the Miniș Valley 
Bohodei waterfall
Vlădeasa Mts
Inside the caldron
Székelykő from the Szentgyörgy castle
Rock of the Szeklers
Eminenciás-vízesés / Cascada Evantai
Craciunesti main  wall
Metaliferi Mts
Rock in Cheile Rameti
Râmeţ/Remete Gorge
Carpathians' SW end

Key Carpathian Statistics

Ranges ranked by the number of summits higher than 2500 m with at least 100 m of prominence (in brackets the part of the Carpathians the range lies in)

Rank 1 2 3 4 5
Range High Tatras (NW) Făgăraș (S) Retezat (S) Parâng (S) Bucegi (E)*
How many peaks 9 5 2 1 1

The Bucegi range is more often considered part of the South Carpathians: please see here.

Gerlach from Poľský hrebeň
The highest and most prominent summit on the left

Ranges ranked according to the prominence of their highpoint

Rank Range Highest summit Prominence (meters)
1 Tatras (NW) Gerlachovský štít  2355
2 Parâng (S) Parângul Mare 2101
3 Făgăraș (S) Moldoveanu 2046
4 Retezat (S) Peleaga 1760
5 Rodna (E) Pietrosul Rodnei 1572
6 Bihor (SW) Cucurbăta Mare 1483
Gorgany from Grofa

Ranges ranked by the number of summits with more than 500 m of prominence

Rank Range Number of summits
1 Gorgany (NE) 13
2-4 Low Tatras (NW), Marmarosh Mountains (NE), Polonyna Krasna (NE) 3


Getting There

The White Tatras from the road between Jurgów and Podspady Poland-Slovakia border
Wolosate Poland-Ukraine border
Solotvino/Sighetu Marmatiei border crossing point (UA/RO)
Romania-Ukraine border
Through Carpathians II Train in Romania

Major flight destinations in the East Central Europe are Vienna, Bratislava, BudapestCracowBucharestBelgrade, Closer to the Carpathian Mountains, but with fewer and less frequent connections, are the airports at Poprad, Košice, Timişoara, Cluj-Napoca, Târgu Mureş (Marosvásárhely), Sibiu, Satu Mare, Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Uzhorod. There are plans for an airport at Braşov.

The region's rail network is extensive, several remote areas can be approached easily by train (quality of service varies, but it is generally acceptable). Discounts are usually available for students and for transboundary journeys. There are huge differences in price - usually long-distance international tickets cost much more than domestic ones. Consequently, many people choose the option of approaching the border on the domestic train, crossing the line somehow (possibly on another, local - not a long-distance - train), then continuing on the other side on another domestic train. This method requires more time and comes with extra hassle, but can save one a substantial amount of money. You should manage on condition that you speak a little of the languages of the countries being crossed, as you may have to talk to ticket officers who do not speak any international language. An up-to-date European timetable is available online from DB.
Car is the most convenient way of traveling around (and if you get enough people in the car, it is also the cheapest). In the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary the motorways are toll roads (you have to purchase a vignette for a given period), the rest are free. In Romania a vignette (called Rovinieta) must be bought for each vehicle driven along any road. The vignette is valid everywhere, for a fixed period (1, 7, 30 days and 1-year). 
As to visas and border crossing, Czechia, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary and Romania are members of the European Union. All of the countries except Romania belong in the Schengen Area, so crossing the borders between them is no problem - there are no border checkpoints anymore. This means that one will be able to hike around freely, from one Schengen country to another without any 'official treatment'.
Crossing the boundary of the Schengen Area is only possible at official border checkpoints, with some rigorous control. EU and US citizens entering Ukraine don't need a visa provided they stay less than 90 days. Passports (not ID cards!) are necessary though.
Last but not least, even if you are an EU or US citizen, it is always a good idea to check the current requirements before you go. 


Very good hiking and regional maps are produced by the following companies: WiT (PL), Compass (PL), Sygnatura (PL), Galileos (PL), Hutyriak (UA), VKÚ Harmanec (SK), Dimap (HU), Muntii Nostri (RO), Bel Alpin (RO), Szarvas-Faragó (HU), Cartographia (HU) and Topográf (HU). 

Hiking Maps

Muntii Nostri   waterproof maps of most of the Romanian ranges 
WiT   series of waterproof (plastic) maps of the Polish Carpathians (the maps cover the Slovak parts of the ranges that straddle the border too) including excellent (and cheap) maps of the Polish and Slovak Tatras
VKÚ Harmanec 1:50,000 map series that covers the whole of Slovakia, thus most of the NW and a smaller part of the NE Carpathians
VKÚ Harmanec 1:25,000 map series that includes Western, High and Low Tatras, Little Carpathians, Kremnické vrchy and Slovenský raj (Slovak Paradise)
Polcart-Sygnatura 1:50,000 Slovenský raj (Slovak Paradise) and Beskid map series - approx. €2 each: Beskid Śląski, Beskid Mały, Beskid Żywiecki, Beskid Makowski, Beskid Wyspowy, Gorce & Beskid Sądecki, Beskid Niski, Bieszczady
Polcart-Sygnatura 1:25,000 map series which includes Polish Tatra National Park (English-German), Pieniny National Park, High Tatras, Western Tatras
Polcart-Sygnatura 1:30,000 Polish Tatras
Compass 1:50,000 map series - GPS-compatible, less than €2.50 each - which covers Polish Carpathians: Beskid Śląski & Beskid Żywiecki, Beskid Mały, Beskid Makowski, Beskid Wyspowy, Gorce, Podhale, Tatry, Orawa, Spisz, Beskid Sądecki, Beskid Niski, Sanok-Turka Mts (and the foothills) , Bieszczady
Compass 1:30,000 Polish Tatras
Compass 1:25,000 Pieniny
Compass 1:100,000 Małopolska Południowa (between Kraków and Slovakia)
PPWK Copernicus 1:20,000 Tatry Wysokie (High Tatras)
PPWK Copernicus 1:20,000 Tatry Zachodnie (Western Tatras)
PPWK Copernicus 1:30,000 Tatrzański Park Narodowy (Polish Tatra National Park)
Szarvas-Faragó 1:30,000 High Tatras (Magas-Tátra) - available from Szarvas
Cartographia 1:40,000 map series that include Börzsöny, Mátra, Bükk and Zemplén Mountains
Kárpátia-ISM 1:50,000 East Carpathians / Máramarosi-havasok - Svidovets, Chorna Hora (with Ukrainian and Hungarian names) - available from Szarvas
Dimap 1:50,000 Ceahlău, Rodnei, Retezat, Parâng, Gilăului, Pădurea Craiului, Vlădeasa, Trascăului (north), Trascăului (south)
Dimap 1:60,000 Bihor, Harghita, Ciucului, Giurgeu-Hăşmaş, Călimani, Făgăraş, Nemira, Tarcău, Gurghiului, Gutâi-Lăpuş-Ţibleş
Dimap 1:70,000 Rarău-Giumalău, Carpathian Bend (Piatra Craiului, Bucegi, Ciucaş, Grohotiş)
Bel Alpin 1:50,000 Retezat, Făgăraş, Piatra Craiului, Bucegi (available here)

Regional Maps

Polcart-Sygnatura 1:100,000 Around Tatras
Dimap 1:250,000 Transcarpathia (also sold with the Hungarian name "Kárpátalja") - covers all of the Ukrainian Carpathians, with both Ukrainian (in Cyrillic) and Hungarian names
Dimap 1:400,000 Transylvania - road map (with Romanian, Hungarian, German and Ukrainian names where applicable)
Dimap 1:250,000 Romania - road atlas
Dimap 1:700,000 Romania - road map
Cartographia 1:300,000 Romania - road atlas
Cartographia 1:480,000 Carpathian Basin - road atlas
Szarvas-Topográf 1:360,000 Slovakia - road atlas
Topográf 1:360,000 Carpathian Basin - road atlas ("A Kárpát-medence autósatlasza")
Szarvas-Topográf 1:360,000 Carpathian Basin - road atlas (sister publication of the above)

Online Maps


This section lists the most important publications about broader areas of the Carpathians. Publications about the Tatra mountains are discussed in more detail on the High Tatra/Vysoké Tatry SP page. If you have suggestions about adding further items, please contact us by PM. Thanks jck for your input!.


In English Janneke Klop: The Mountains of Romania (2020, second edition, Cicerone Press) - This guide describes 27 short treks of 2-6 days and 10 day walks in the mountains of Romania, available from Cicerone
In English Colin Saunders and Renáta Nározná: The High Tatras (1994, 2006, Cicerone Press) - guidebook that I've found on the Internet (haven't read it but seems to be a good one), available from Cicerone, Amazon and probably elsewhere as well
In English Lucy Mallows: Transylvania (2008, Bradt Travel Guides) - guidebook whose bits can be read online; can be bought e.g. here
In English Tom Chrystal and Beáta Dósa: Walking in Hungary (2003, Cicerone Press) - guidebook that I've found on the Internet (haven't read it but seems to be a good one), available from Cicerone, Amazon and probably elsewhere as well
In English Ivan Vološčuk (ed.): The National Parks and Biosphere Reserves in Carpathians: The Last Nature Paradise (1999, ACANAP, Tatranská Lomnica) - monography, reviewed on CER, available from nhbs
In Polish Józef Nyka: a couple of guidebooks about the Tatras, and their vicinity (i.e.: Tatry Polskie, Tatry Słowackie, Pieniny - see here)
In Polish Guides to several Carpathian ranges, areas and countries (e.g.: Beskidy, Spisz, Gorgany, Góry Fogaraskie, Ukraina Zachodnia, Rumunia, Słowacja - Karpackie serce Europy) by various authors from the publisher named Bezdroża.
In Hungarian Balázs Nagy: Gerinctúrák a Kárpátokban /Ridge Routes of the Carpathians/ (2002, Sziget, Debrecen) - Description of many long-distance hikes throughout the Carpathians, with useful tips and advice (out of print, hard to come by)
In Hungarian various authors: Erdély hegyei /Mountains of Transylvania/ (1998-2006, Pallas-Akadémia, Csíkszereda/Miercurea-Ciuc) - Valuable guidebook (booklet series) with maps (most of them available - see publisher's site)
In Hungarian Pusztay Sándor and Zsigmond Enikő (eds.): Erdélyi túrák /Hikes in Transylvania/ (2002, Kornétás, Budapest) - 512-page guidebook for 51 mountain areas in Transylvania
In Hungarian 2500 km a Kárpátok főgerincén - Kárpát Koszorú Nemzetközi Túramozgalom /2500 km on the ridge of the Carpathians/ - photo album with pictures of an ambitious hiking endeavour all along the Carpathian Arc
In Hungarian Ákos Neidenbach: A Kárpát-medence hegymászó és turista irodalma (1994, Budapest) - bibliography of Hungarian language literature about the Carpathian Basin (printed in small quantity - not available in shops)


In Hungarian Turisták Lapja and Turistaság és Alpinizmus (1889-1944 and 1910-1935, respectively) - "legendary" periodicals from the "golden ages" of Hungarian mountaineering and hiking (some articles from the archives)
In Hungarian Erdélyi Gyopár /Transylvanian Edelweiss/ - periodic publication of the (Hungarian) Transylvanian Carpathian Association (back issues are available online)
In Hungarian Kárpáti Lapok - periodical publication of the (new) Hungarian Carpathian Association (available online: years 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008)
In Romanian Munţii Carpaţi - periodical publication between 1997-2003, probably discontinued since then (list and contents of #1-37)
In Romanian Invitaţie în Carpaţi - online monthly by (available online)
In Polish Płaj - by the Polish Carpathian Society (online articles and abstracts)

Select External Links

If you have suggestions about adding further interesting items, please contact us by PM. We'd like to thank SP members Tomas Kristofory, jck, kola and visentin for their input to this section.
In English Carpathian Network of Protected Areas (with a nice overview map)
In a few languages pages about Slovak Carpathians by Rudolf Kukura: High Tatras Low Tatras, Pienines, Slovak Paradise, Upper Hron region, Liptov region, Gemer region, Spiš region
In German extensive list of climbing routes places in Ceahlău, Rarău, Bicaz, Piatra Craiului and Bucegi Mts. - with UIAA grades
In Romanian Romanian mountaineering and climbing sites:,, - maps, plenty of photos
In Polish homepage of Polish Carpathian Society (Towarzystwo Karpackie)
In Hungarian homepage of the re-established Hungarian Carpathian Association (Magyarországi Kárpát Egyesület, MKE) - /note: the new MKE (1992-) is successor of the old MKE, the world's 7th alpine club (1873-1945)/
In Hungarian homepage of the re-established (Hungarian) Transylvanian Carpathian Association (Erdélyi Kárpát Egyesület, EKE)
In a few languages information about the Ukrainian Carpathians on the Ukrainian-Polish Tourist Portal
In Czech page about the Carpathians - plenty of information about the Carpathians in Czech
In German page of the Carpathian Section of Deutscher Alpenverein, with further clues in German towards the re-founded (Saxon) Transylvanian Carpathian Association (Siebenbürgische Karpatenverein, SKV - 1880-1945, 1996-)
In German more about SKV in articles of the Siebenbürgische Zeitung (Transylvanian Saxon Newspaper) and a university study
In Polish homepage of Polish Tourist Country Lovers' Society (Polskie Towarzystwo Turystyczno Krajoznawcze, PTTK), owner of several mountain huts /note: PTTK was established in 1950 as a union of two associations: PTT (Polskie Towarzystwo Tatrzańskie, founded in 1873 in Kraków originally as Towarzystwo Tatrzańskie, reactivated in 1988 as a separate organization) and PTK (Polskie Towarzystwo Krajoznawcze, founded in 1906 in Warsaw)
In Ukrainian page about Ukrainian Carpathians - Cyrillic script
In Hungarian satellite images of Transylvania (and sometimes the whole of the Carpathian Basin) are regularly published on - some examples (with descriptive text in Hungarian): autumn colors, summer, summer clouds spring clouds and snow 

Further Resources

The comprehensive "Geography of the Carpathian Basin" by Béla Bulla and Tibor Mendöl (originally published in 1947, republished in 1999) discusses the complex structure of the Carpathians in detail - unfortunately it is only available in Hungarian. There is also a comprehensive volume entitled Geology of the Carpathian Region by G. Z. Földvary (Sydney, 1988), whose sections can be read online.  


RO/UA border summit of Hnitessa
LukZem (CZ)
Kozi Wierch ridge at sunset
Tomek Lodowy (PL)
Without a shade of a doubt, this page would look much less attractive without the photographic contribution of many SP'ers – kudos to them all, especially to LukZem and Tomek Lodowy.
User Profile Image
peterbud (H)
Morning on Babia Mtn
yatsek (PL)


Additions and CorrectionsPost an Addition or Correction

Viewing: 1-18 of 18

aiwa - Feb 26, 2008 5:46 pm - Voted 9/10


Geologically some parts of inner and outer western carpathians belongs to Austria


peterbud - Feb 28, 2008 9:22 am - Hasn't voted

Re: Location

Yes, however they are often disregarded as such. There is also discussion about where do they "end" in the south. I did not want to go that deep into this kind of geological discussion as it is not the main focus of the site, but thanks for the addition.


visentin - Sep 30, 2009 4:16 pm - Voted 10/10

Re: Location

Few words would be also welcome to raise the issue - controversed or not - of what some call the "Serbian Carpathians". Karpaterna is the guy for that !


yatsek - Oct 1, 2009 7:49 am - Voted 10/10

Re: Location

The FEW words :) are in the first paragraph: "in geologic terms the Carpathians extend a bit beyond the Danube"


visentin - Oct 1, 2009 9:10 am - Voted 10/10

Re: Location

"beyond the Danube" north or south ? :) North => the unsignificant rock on the other shore in Austria, which the locals call proudly the "Austrian Carpathians" South => there is a famous national park in Serbia called Banat. Worth being mentionned, even considering it doesn't make the unanimity ! (you've mentioned Romanian Banat but Serbian not)


peterbud - Oct 1, 2009 11:13 am - Hasn't voted

Re: Location

North: Can you give some references? If you google "Österreichische Karpaten", the results will be anything but convincing. South: No trace of "Banat National Park", either (should be "Nacionalni Park Banat"). What you might be talking of is NP Derdap: However, Banat is strictly north of the Danube, and is actually not the name of the mountains but a much broader area, including parts of the Pannonian Great Plain. The mountains of Banat are in the part which belongs to Romania now:


visentin - Oct 1, 2009 1:19 pm - Voted 10/10

Re: Location

North : Hundsheimer Berge South : yes, ?erdap (or Djerdap), I mixed the name. The page you found is probably the one I once watched, but I don't recognize it at all...


peterbud - Oct 1, 2009 5:55 pm - Hasn't voted

Re: Location

North: Yes, I am aware of the area (also called as Hainburger Berge, but not "Austrian Carpathians"). The question is that whether we shall talk about it in more detail or not. As you mentioned, it's an unsignificant block. The only noteworthy thing about it is that it's located on the other side of the Danube - otherwise it would be just the southern end of the Little Carpathians. Perhaps just mentioning the name in those brackets Jacek cited would do. South: As for Djerdap NP in the strict sense, it should be rather noted as such on a page dealing with NP-s of SE Europe. As for the whole group of those mountains south from the Iron Gate, I'd welcome further information. Right now the best I could find is Wiki, which is generally considered as a weak source needing reassurement.


yatsek - Oct 1, 2009 8:37 pm - Voted 10/10

Re: Beyond the Danube?

The Austrian Carpathians, despite being an upland rather than real mountains, also boast fine scenery, plus interesting views of the Alps.:) Let's not forget the Visegrad Mts in Hungary.:)) The mts of Banat and those of the N chunk of Eastern Serbia's can be seen as two halves of the same mtn group. In geologic terms, they form one block cut by the gorge of the Danube. As far as I can remember, once you, Eric, compared it to the Pieniny split by the Dunajec River, and you were right. In fact, there are three river options for the SW end of the Carpathians: 1 The Danube. 2 The Velika Morava and Crni Timok rivers in Serbia. 3 The Upper Timis (Temes) and the Mehadica rivers in Romania.


yatsek - Oct 3, 2009 7:23 am - Voted 10/10

Re: Serbian

Thanks very much for your query, Eric, you're right - those Serbian "Carpatho-Balkans" ought to be mentioned on a page like this; we're currently working on the changes in the text.


peterbud - Jan 13, 2010 9:10 am - Hasn't voted

Re: Serbian

The info has been incorporated at last! It's solely me who's to be blamed for taking so long time, Jacek prepared the text much earlier. Sorry guys, sometimes I need way much time to chew things :)


visentin - Sep 30, 2009 4:09 pm - Voted 10/10

where are my...

Cho?ské Vrchy in your diagram ? :(


peterbud - Sep 30, 2009 5:19 pm - Hasn't voted

Re: where are my...

They're there and they're not there :) - The current link points to Velky Choc, because when I first compiled the links, the area did not have a page, only the mountain. Since then you've added the area, and I forgot to take note of that. Will be corrected soon!


peterbud - Sep 30, 2009 5:33 pm - Hasn't voted

Re: where are my...



visentin - Oct 1, 2009 3:02 am - Voted 10/10

Re: where are my...

Thanks ! But I meant, in the Crystalline belt table. Perhaps to small to have its place ?


yatsek - Oct 1, 2009 6:21 am - Voted 10/10

Re: where are my...

Thanks for your question Eric. Although the term "crystalline" doesn't normally refer to limestone, most of the Carpathian limestone does occur within/around the crystalline (granite/gneiss) blocks (more info in the "Geology and Physiography" chapter), including some of your/our favourite areas, such as the Tatry Bielskie, or Vratna-Rozsutec in the Mala Fatra. We have listed the most interesting limestone areas, including your Chocske Vrchy, below the flysch-crystalline-volcanic tables. (On the maps, they're represented by white triangles.)


roamaniac - Feb 25, 2020 6:04 am - Hasn't voted

New Cicerone guide to the Romanian Carpathians

As of 15 Feb 2020, a new Cicerone guide is available to the Romanian Carpathians, with the same title as the old one ('The Mountains of Romania') but a different author (me). You can find it here: It contains 37 routes and covers all the major and many lesser mountain ranges of Romania. Happy hiking!


peterbud - Feb 26, 2020 10:20 pm - Hasn't voted

Re: New Cicerone guide to the Romanian Carpathians

Thanks for the update and congrats on the book! The book info section has been refreshed with the changes. Peter

Viewing: 1-18 of 18



Children refers to the set of objects that logically fall under a given object. For example, the Aconcagua mountain page is a child of the 'Aconcagua Group' and the 'Seven Summits.' The Aconcagua mountain itself has many routes, photos, and trip reports as children.