Page Type Page Type: Area/Range
Location Lat/Lon: 44.11250°N / 73.9239°W
Activities Activities: Hiking, Mountaineering, Trad Climbing, Sport Climbing, Toprope, Bouldering, Ice Climbing, Skiing
Seasons Season: Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter
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The Adirondack Mountains are located in Northern New York State near the Canadian Border. The Forest Preserve (Adirondack Park), which comprises most of the region, has over 6 million acres of land (9,375 square miles or 24,281 square kilometers) in its borders. It is the largest park in the lower 48 States, exceeding the area of Yellowstone, Yosemite, Grand Canyon, Glacier, and Great Smoky Mountains National Parks combined. It is roughly the size of Vermont. If it were its own country, the Park would be the 149th largest country in the world, slightly larger than Djibouti (I was just looking for an excuse to say "Djibouti").

Only 2.5 million acres is state land, although the state buys more every year. That means that nearly 3.5 million acres is privately-owned land. This public/private relationship is more or less unique to the Park. Developement and use of Park lands is governed by the Adirondack Park Agency.

The Park is the headwaters of three major rivers: Hudson, Black, and Mohawk. According to The Adirondack Council, the surface waters of the Adirondack region include 2,800 lakes and ponds, 1,500 miles of rivers, and an estimated 30,000 miles of brooks and streams. The combined volume of just four Adirondack Park lakes (Lake George, Great Sacandaga, Tupper Lake and Raquette Lake) exceeds 1,000,000,000,000 (1 trillion) gallons. Unfortunately, many of these waters are negatively affected by acid rain, and several of the region's lakes are "dead" (Note: they still appear pristine, and are still usable for wading, canoeing, etc.).

Adirondack architecture - More to come. Examples

Adirondack style rustic furniture - More to come. Examples

Geology and Natural History

The Adirondacks are part of the Canadian Shield, not the much younger Appalachian Range. The mountains of the Great Range are formed from metanorthosite, except for Armstrong, which is comprised syenite gneiss. The reason for this difference is linked to the origin of the Adirondack Mountains themselves.

Much of the rock that we see in the High Peaks and the Adirondacks in general was formed about 1 billion years ago as the basement rock to a very large mountain range that would rival the size of the Himalayas. The rock we see today was miles below the surface, where it was metamorphisized. Over time these mountains eroded away and other geologic events happened, such as the European plate colliding with the North American plate. These events cracked the bedrock forming faults. These faults didn’t necessarily follow the arrangement of ridges and valleys of the ancient mountain range. The faults were then filled by magma forming igneous rocks. Much of this rock lay dormant while other geological events were happening, such as the formation of the Appalachian Mountains.

The processes responsible for the mountain ranges we see today are being debated. One theory states that sometime in the Tertiary Period (approximately 30 million years ago) something caused uplift (perhaps a hot spot), which pushed the bedrock towards the surface, which is still happening. Over time, erosion (in particular glacial erosion) carved out the softer rock inside the faults leaving the harder metamorphic rock behind, which are the ranges we see today.

A competing theory states that the Himalaya-sized mountain range was so heavy, that it depressed the crust and mantle beneath. As these mountains eroded, they weighed less, and the current uplift is due to a rebounding effect of the crust and mantle beneath.

This website provides more geology info.

Also check out: Adirondack Park Agency Geology Page
Adirondack Park Agency Wildlife Page
Adirondack Park Agency Natural Communities Page

Climate and Weather

In general, the area has a cool and wet climate. The Village of Speculator, for example has a mean annual temperature of 39.9*F (4.4*C) and an average annual precipitation of 57.8 inches (1.4 meters). Although these measurements meet Alaback's definition of a temperate rainforest, the area is not formally classified as such (please comment if you know why this is the case).

Both lake effect snows originating over Lake Ontario and "nor-easter" storms can have a significant effect on snowfall totals, which may widely vary depending upon the tracks of such storms. Hiking on top of 8 feet (2.5 meters) of snow is not uncommon. The adjancent Tug Hill Plateau (west) averages over 25 feet (7.5 meters) of snow per year.

Current Mountain Weather: >

Average Highs and Lows in degrees Fahrenheit
Town (Elev. above sea level) Jan. Mar. May Jul. Sept. Nov.
Northville (800 ft.) 10-30 20-40 45-70 60-80 50-70 30-45
Lake Placid (1,880 ft.) 5-30 15-40 40-65 55-80 45-70 25-45


High Peaks Area

The High Peaks are a group of 46 mountains located in the central Adirondacks with elevations above 4,000 feet, as measured by Verplank Colvin for the 1897 USGS survey and subsequently listed in Russell M.L. Carson's "Peaks and People of the Adirondacks"(1926). Since his original measurements, the elevations of Blake, Cliff, Nye, and Couchsacraga have been determined to be less than 4,000 feet; and the elvation of McNaughton has been shown to be greater than 4,000 feet. However, since the original 46ers (those who climbed each of the 46 High Peaks) climbed the mountains according to Colvin's measurements, the Adirondack Forty-Sixers, Inc. organization still utilizes Colvin's survey as the standard. The High Peaks Area contains several groups/ranges, including the: Great Range MacIntyre Range Dix Range Colvin Range Santanoni Group Seward Group List of the 46 Adirondack High Peaks Created by anita514

Other High Peaks Area Mountains

MacNaughton 4,000+- ft.
Moose Mountain 3,898
Wallface 3,700 ft.
Hurricane Mtn. 3,694 ft.
Pitchoff 3,600 ft.
Noonmark 3,556 ft.
Mount Adams 3,520 ft.
Ampersand 3,241 ft.
Catamount 3,166 ft.
Mt. Van Hovenberg 2,940
Mt. Jo 2,876 ft.
Rooster Comb 2,762 ft.
Poke-O-Moohshine 2,180 ft.

Villages in the High Peaks region include Tupper Lake, Saranac Lake, Lake Placid, Wilmington, Keene, Keene Valley, and Newcomb.

Northern Area

St.Regis Mountain

Villages in the Northern region include Plattsburgh, Malone, Potsdam, and Canton.


Central Mountains on SP

Snowy Mountain 3,899 ft.
Pillsbury Mt 3,597
Chimney Mt. 2,721 ft.

Villages in the Central region include Blue Mountain Lake, Speculator, and Long Lake.

West Central

Pharoah Mt.

Lake George Mountains

Black Mountain 2,665 ft.
Erebus 2,527 ft.
Buck Mountain 2,330 ft.

Villages in the West Central region include Old Forge, Inlet, and Piseco.


New York State Departmant of Environmental Conservation Rules and Regulations


Lands and Forests

Interactive aerial tour of the region.


Introduction: About the Adirondack Park

History: Adirondack History
Adirondack History Trivia
History of the Adirondack Park
A Nice Timeline
Adirondack Museum

Climate:Speculator weather

Geology and Natural History: Submitted by lumberzac (Webshots Page) and WalksWithBlackflies

Books: 1) Goodwin, Tony. Guide to Adirondack Trails: High Peaks Region. Lake George, NY, 2000.
2) Schlimmer, E. Thur Hiker's Guide to America.Camden, ME, 2005.

Additions and CorrectionsPost an Addition or Correction

Viewing: 1-4 of 4
The Ogre

The Ogre - Jun 11, 2006 10:32 pm - Hasn't voted

ADK and the 46ers

The Adirondack Mountain Club (ADK) and the Adirondack 46ers are not affiliated with each other in any way. However, many people belong to both organizations, and the clubs share a mutual respect and many common goals.


WalksWithBlackflies - Jun 12, 2006 11:47 am - Hasn't voted

Re: ADK and the 46ers

Correct you are... the change has been made.

The Ogre

The Ogre - Jun 15, 2006 1:19 am - Hasn't voted

Re: ADK and the 46ers

WalksWithBlackflies, I am the Jeremy that you exchanged emails with recently re: my post on VFTT on a Great Range traverse. Thanks for referring me to your Great Range page. I previously was a casual user of SP, but that encouraged me to register. Thanks!


PaulRomano - Jul 4, 2011 1:28 pm - Hasn't voted

Snowy Mt

Under the section on Central mountains, Snowy Mountain is incorrectly listed as "Snowy Peak".

Viewing: 1-4 of 4



Children refers to the set of objects that logically fall under a given object. For example, the Aconcagua mountain page is a child of the 'Aconcagua Group' and the 'Seven Summits.' The Aconcagua mountain itself has many routes, photos, and trip reports as children.